EMS Bibliography

Table of Content - go to abstracts

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EMS in General

1. Binder-Macleod SA, Halden EE, Jungles KA. Effects of stimulation intensity on the physiological responses of human motor units. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(4):556-65.  

2. Vanderthommen M, Duchateau J. Electrical stimulation as a modality to improve performance of the neuromuscular system. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007;35(4):180-5.  

3. Delitto A, Brown M, Strube MJ, Rose SJ, Lehman RC. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(3):187-91.  

4. Francis C. Electronic Muscle Stimulation in the Training Model. 2008. Available at: http://www.charliefrancis.com/store/Scripts/prodView.asp?idproduct=37.

5. Dahmane R, Valencic V, Knez N, Eržen I. Evaluation of the ability to make non-invasive estimation of muscle contractile properties on the basis of the muscle belly response. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 2001;39(1):51-55.  

6. Matheson GO, Dunlop RJ, McKenzie DC, Smith CF, Allen PS. Force output and energy metabolism during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a 31P-NMR study. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1997;29(3):175-80.  

7. MacIntosh BR, Willis JC. Force-frequency relationship and potentiation in mammalian skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(6):2088-2096.  

8. Nuhr M, Crevenna R, Gohlsch B, et al. Functional and biochemical properties of chronically stimulated human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(2):202-8.  

9. Knaflitz M, Merletti R, De Luca CJ. Inference of motor unit recruitment order in voluntary and electrically elicited contractions. J Appl Physiol. 1990;68(4):1657-1667.  

10. Adams GR, Harris RT, Woodard D, Dudley GA. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI. J Appl Physiol. 1993;74(2):532-7.  

11. Trimble M, Enoka R. Mechanisms underlying the training effects associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. PHYS THER. 1991;71(4):273-280.  

12. Binder-Macleod SA, Lee SC, Fritz AD, Kucharski LJ. New look at force-frequency relationship of human skeletal muscle: effects of fatigue. J Neurophysiol. 1998;79(4):1858-68.  

13. Gregory CM, Bickel CS. Recruitment Patterns in Human Skeletal Muscle During Electrical Stimulation. PHYS THER. 2005;85(4):358-364.  

14. Shkuratova N. Russian electrical stimulation: the early experiments. (Perspective). - Free Online Library. American Physical Therapy Association. 2002. Available at: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Russian+electrical+stimulation:+the+early+experiments.+(Perspective).-a093081458 [Accessed February 22, 2009].

15. Baldwin KM, Haddad F. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(11 Suppl):S40-51.  

16. Dahmane R, Djordjevič S, Šimunič B, Valenčič V. Spatial fiber type distribution in normal human muscle : : Histochemical and tensiomyographical evaluation. Journal of Biomechanics. 2005;38(12):2451-2459.  

17. Armstrong WJ, Nestle HN, Grinnell DC, et al. The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the hoffmann reflex. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):471-6.  

18. Gorman PH, Mortimer JT. The effect of stimulus parameters on the recruitment characteristics of direct nerve stimulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1983;30(7):407-14.  

19. Porcari J, Jennifer Miller, Kelly Cornwell, et al. The Effects Of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training On Abdominal Strength, Endurance, And Selected Anthropometric Measures. JSSM. Available at: http://www.jssm.org/vol4/n1/9/v4n1-9text.php.  

20. JSSM- 2005, Vol.4, Issue 1, 66 - 75. Available at: http://www.jssm.org/vol4/n1/9/v4n1-9text.php#1 [Accessed April 5, 2009].

21. v4n1-9pdf.pdf.

22. Delitto A, Snyder-Mackler L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Phys Ther. 1990;70(3):158-64.  

23. Pette D, Vrbová G. What does chronic electrical stimulation teach us about muscle plasticity? Muscle Nerve. 1999;22(6):666-77. 

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EMS in Sport

1. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Martin A. Activation of human plantar flexor muscles increases after electromyostimulation training. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(4):1383–92.
2. Millet GY, Millet GP, Lattier G, Maffiuletti NA, Candau R. Alteration of neuromuscular function after a prolonged road cycling race. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24(3):190–4.
3. Millet GY, Lepers R, Maffiuletti NA, et al. Alterations of neuromuscular function after an ultramarathon. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(2):486–92.
4. Beck T. Applications of Surface Electromyography In Strength and Conditioning. NSCA Paper.
5. Boerio D, Jubeau M, Zory R, Maffiuletti NA. Central and peripheral fatigue after electrostimulation-induced resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):973–8.
6. Zory R, Boërio D, Jubeau M, Maffiuletti NA. Central and peripheral fatigue of the knee extensor muscles induced by electromyostimulation. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26(10):847–53.
7. Binder-Macleod SA, McDermond LR. Changes in the force-frequency relationship of the human quadriceps femoris muscle following electrically and voluntarily induced fatigue. Phys Ther. 1992;72(2):95–104.
8. Jubeau M, Sartorio A, Marinone PG, et al. Comparison between voluntary and stimulated contractions of the quadriceps femoris for growth hormone response and muscle damage. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(1):75–81.
9. Russ DW, Clark BC, Krause J, Hagerman FC. Development of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for sprint training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(9):1810–1819.
10. Maffiuletti NA, Herrero AJ, Jubeau M, Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M. Differences in Electrical Stimulation Thresholds between Men and Women. Ann Neurol. 2008;63(4):507–12.
11. Girold S, Jalab C, Bernard O, et al. Dry-land strength training vs. electrical stimulation in sprint swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(2):497–505.
12. Maffiuletti NA, Dugnani S, Folz M, Di Pierno E, Mauro F. Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(10):1638–44.
13. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Scaglioni G, et al. Effect of electromyostimulation training on soleus and gastrocnemii H- and T-reflex properties. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90(5-6):601–7.
14. Jubeau M, Zory R, Gondin J, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. Effect of electrostimulation training-detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms. Neurosci Lett. 2007;424(1):41–6.
15. François Fourchet, Sami Kuitunen, Olivier Girard, Adam J. Beard, Grégoire P. Millet. EFFECTS OF COMBINED FOOT/ANKLE ELECTROMYOSTIMULATION AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON THE IN-SHOE PLANTAR PRESSURE PATTERNS DURING SPRINT IN YOUNG ATHLETES, JSSM-2011, Vol.10, Issue 2, 292 - 300. Available at: http://www.jssm.org/vol10/n2/7/v10n2-7abst.php. Accessed May 31, 2011.
16. Malatesta D, Cattaneo F, Dugnani S, Maffiuletti NA. Effects of electromyostimulation training and volleyball practice on jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(3):573–9.
17. Babault N, Cometti G, Bernardin M, Pousson M, Chatard J-C. Effects of electromyostimulation training on muscle strength and power of elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):431–437.
18. Colson SS, Martin A, Van Hoecke J. Effects of electromyostimulation versus voluntary isometric training on elbow flexor muscle strength. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009;19(5):e311–319.
19. Coghlan S, Crowe L, McCarthyPersson U, Minogue C, Caulfield B. Electrical muscle stimulation for deep stabilizing muscles in abdominal wall. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:2756–2759.
20. Maffiuletti NA, Minetto MA, Farina D, Bottinelli R. Electrical stimulation for neuromuscular testing and training: state-of-the art and unresolved issues. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2011;111(10):2391–2397.
21. Delitto A, Brown M, Strube MJ, Rose SJ, Lehman RC. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(3):187–91.
22. Herrero JA, Izquierdo M, Maffiuletti NA, García-López J. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(7):533–9.
23. Filipovic A, Kleinöder H, Dörmann U, Mester J. Electromyostimulation--a systematic review of the effects of different electromyostimulation methods on selected strength parameters in trained and elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(9):2600–2614.
24. Anon. PubMed Link. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067247. Accessed November 10, 2012.
26. Brocherie F, Babault N, Cometti G, Maffiuletti N, Chatard J-C. Electrostimulation training effects on the physical performance of ice hockey players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):455–60.
27. Maffiuletti NA, Bramanti J, Jubeau M, et al. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive electrostimulation strength training for competitive tennis players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):677–82.
28. Sartorio A, Jubeau M, Agosti F, et al. GH responses to two consecutive bouts of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in healthy adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158(3):311–6.
29. Gondin J, Cozzone PJ, Bendahan D. Is high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation a suitable tool for muscle performance improvement in both healthy humans and athletes? European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909714. Accessed September 14, 2011.
30. Jubeau M, Zory R, Gondin J, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. Late neural adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training of the plantar flexor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98(2):202–11.
31. Maffiuletti NA, Zory R, Miotti D, et al. Neuromuscular adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85(2):167–75.
32. Maffiuletti NA. Presentation: EMS in Sport. 2005.
33. Jubeau M, Gondin J, Martin A, Sartorio A, Maffiuletti NA. Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(11):901–4.
34. Zatsiorsky VM, Kraemer WJ. Science and Practice of Strength Training, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2006.
35. Verkhoshansky Y, Siff M. Supertraining. 6th expanded version. Verkhoshansky; 1999.
36. Darryn Willoughby, Steve Simpson. The Effects of Combined Electromyostimulation and Dynamic Mu...?: The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 1996. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/1996/02000/The_Effects_of_Combined_Electromyostimulation_and.8.aspx. Accessed May 7, 2010.
37. Maffiuletti NA, Cometti G, Amiridis IG, et al. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basketball practice on muscle strength and jumping ability. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21(6):437–43.
38. Carroll TJ, Riek S, Carson RG. The sites of neural adaptation induced by resistance training in humans. J Physiol. 2002;544(Pt 2):641–652.
39. Maffiuletti NA. The use of electrostimulation exercise in competitive sport. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(4):406–7.
40. Anon. The XVIII Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology. In: Aalborg, Denmark; 2010. Available at: http://isek2010.hst.aau.dk/program.html. Accessed February 29, 2012.
41. Thibaudeau C. Theory and Application of Modern Strength & Power Methods. Christian Thibaudeau; 2005.

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EMS use in Injury Rehabilitation

1. Fitzgerald GK, Piva SR, Irrgang JJ. A modified neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for quadriceps strength training following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33(9):492-501.  

2. Lyons CL, Robb JB, Irrgang JJ, Fitzgerald GK. Differences in Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Torque When Using a Clinical Electrical Stimulator Versus a Portable Electrical Stimulator. PHYS THER. 2005;85(1):44-51.  

3. Rebai H, Barra V, Laborde A, et al. Effects of two electrical stimulation frequencies in thigh muscle after knee surgery. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23(8):604-9.  

4. Michael J Callaghan. Electrical Stimulation Of The Quadriceps Muscle Group In Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. 2001.  

5. Yoshida Y, Mizner RL, Ramsey DK, Snyder-Mackler L. Examining Outcomes From Total Knee Arthroplasty And The Relationship Between Quadriceps Strength And Knee Function Over Time. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008;23(3):320–328.  

6. Mizner RL, Petterson SC, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps strength and the time course of functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35(7):424-436.  

7. Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Bailey SL, Stralka SW. Strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and functional recovery after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. A prospective, randomized clinical trial of electrical stimulation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995;77(8):1166-1173.  

8. Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Stralka SW, Bailey SL. Use of Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Recovery of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Force Production in Patients Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. PHYS THER. 1994;74(10):901-907. 

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Muscle Properties and EMS

1. Ding J, Wexler AS, Binder-Macleod SA. A mathematical model that predicts the force-frequency relationship of human skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(4):477-85.  

2. Enoka RM. Activation order of motor axons in electrically evoked contractions. Muscle & Nerve. 2002;25(6):763-764.  

3. Vrbova G, Hudlicka O, Schaefer Centofanti K. Application of Muscle-Nerve Stimulation in Health and Disease. Springer; 2008.  

4. Robinson AJ, Snyder-Mackler L. Clinical Electrophysiology: Electrotherapy and Electrophysiologic Testing. Third Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.  

5. Muthalib M, Jubeau M, Millet G, Maffiuletti N, Nosaka K. Comparison between electrically evoked and voluntary isometric contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxidative metabolism using near-infrared spectroscopy. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009;107(2):235-241.  

6. HENRIKSSON-LARSEN K, FRIDEN J, WRETLING M. Distribution of fibre sizes in human skeletal muscle. An enzyme histochemical study in m tibialis anterior. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 1985;123(2):171-177.  

7. Scaglioni G, Narici MV, Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Martin A. Effect of ageing on the electrical and mechanical properties of human soleus motor units activated by the H reflex and M wave. J Physiol. 2003;548(Pt 2):649-61.  

8. Lepers R, Millet GY, Maffiuletti NA. Effect of cycling cadence on contractile and neural properties of knee extensors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1882-8.  

9. Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Babault N, et al. Electrical and mechanical H(max)-to-M(max) ratio in power- and endurance-trained athletes. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(1):3-9.  

10. Bottinelli R. Functional heterogeneity of mammalian single muscle fibres: do myosin isoforms tell the whole story? Pflugers Arch. 2001;443(1):6-17.  

11. Bottinelli R, Reggiani C. Human skeletal muscle fibres: molecular and functional diversity. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 2000;73(2-4):195-262.  

12. Enoka RM. Muscle strength and its development. New perspectives. Sports Med. 1988;6(3):146-68.  

13. Vrbova G. Nerve-Muscle Interaction. 2nd ed. London: Chapman & Hall; 1995.  

14. Enoka R. Neuromechanics of human movement. 4th ed. Champaign IL [u.a.]: Human Kinetics; 2008.  

15. Lepers R, Maffiuletti NA, Rochette L, Brugniaux J, Millet GY. Neuromuscular fatigue during a long-duration cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(4):1487-93.  

16. Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: influence on muscle strength, size, and hormonal adaptations in trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):572-82.  

17. Lepers R, Pousson ML, Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Van Hoecke J. The effects of a prolonged running exercise on strength characteristics. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21(4):275-80.  

18. Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Van Hoecke J, Schieppati M. The relative contribution to the plantar-flexor torque of the soleus motor units activated by the H reflex and M response in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2000;288(2):127-30.  

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1. Bornhorst WJ, Minardi JE. A phenomenological theory of muscular contraction. I. Rate equations at a given length based on irreversible thermodynamics. Biophys. J. 1970;10(2):137-154.  

2. Bornhorst WJ, Minardi JE. A phenomenological theory of muscular contraction. II - Generalized Length Variations. Biophys. J. 1970;10(2):155-171.  

3. AAMI Guidance TENS.

4. Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2010;74(2):173-176.  

5. Foss Ø, Hallén J. Cadence and performance in elite cyclists. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005;93(4):453-462.  

6. Harry JD, Ward AW, Heglund NC, Morgan DL, McMahon TA. Cross-bridge cycling theories cannot explain high-speed lengthening behavior in frog muscle. Biophys. J. 1990;57(2):201-208.  

7. McDaniel J, Durstine JL, Hand GA, Martin JC. Determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling. J. Appl. Physiol. 2002;93(3):823-828.  

8. Mirkin G. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Pocket Guide to Fitness and Sports.; 1998.  

9. fitness.pdf.

10. Paavolainen L, Hakkinen K, Hamalainen I, Nummela A, Rusko H. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(5):1527-1533.  

11. Chen B, Jones NL, Killian KJ. Is there a conflict between minimizing effort and energy expenditure with increasing velocities of muscle contraction in humans? http://jp.physoc.org/content/518/3/933.full. 1999. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2269458/ [Accessed December 14, 2009].

12. HUXLEY AF. Muscle structure and theories of contraction. Prog Biophys Biophys Chem. 1957;7:255-318.  

13. Enoka R. Neuromechanics of human movement. 4th ed. Champaign IL [u.a.]: Human Kinetics; 2008.  

14. Mijailovich SM, Fredberg JJ, Butler JP. On the theory of muscle contraction: filament extensibility and the development of isometric force and stiffness. Biophys J. 1996;71(3):1475-1484.  

15. Rectangular hyperbola fitted to muscle force-velocity data using three-dimensional regression analysis -- Wohlfart and Edman 79 (2): 235 -- Experimental Physiology. Available at: http://ep.physoc.org/cgi/content/abstract/79/2/235 [Accessed April 11, 2009].

16. Holmes JW. Teaching from classic papers: Hill's model of muscle contraction. Advan. Physiol. Edu. 2006;30(2):67-72.  

17. Weyand PG, Sandell RF, Prime DNL, Bundle MW. The biological limits to running speed are imposed from the ground up. J Appl Physiol. 2010. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20093666 [Accessed January 25, 2010].  

18. Ahlquist LE, Bassett DR, Sufit R, Nagle FJ, Thomas DP. The effect of pedaling frequency on glycogen depletion rates in type I and type II quadriceps muscle fibers during submaximal cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(4):360-364.  

19. Hill AV. The Heat of Shortening and the Dynamic Constants of Muscle. Proc. R. Soc. 1938;126(843):136-195.  

20. Bourgois J, Coorevits P, Danneels L, et al. Validity of the heart rate deflection point as a predictor of lactate threshold concepts during cycling. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):498-503.  

21. Sentija D, Vucetic V, Markovic G. Validity of the modified Conconi running test. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(12):1006-1011.  

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EMS for Sport Recovery

1. Warren CD, Brown LE, Landers MR, Stahura KA. Effect of three different between-inning recovery methods on baseball pitching performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(3):683-688.
2. Cortis C, Tessitore A, D’Artibale E, Meeusen R, Capranica L. Effects of post-exercise recovery interventions on physiological, psychological, and performance parameters. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(5):327-335.
3. Anon. COMPARISON OF ACTIVE AND ELECTROSTIMULATED RECOVERY STRATEGIES AFTER FATIGUING EXERCISE , JSSM-2010, Vol.9, Issue 2, 164 - 169. 2010. Available at: http://www.jssm.org/vol9/n2/1/v9n2-1abst.php. Accessed May 28, 2010.
4. Neric FB, Beam WC, Brown LE, Wiersma LD. Comparison of swim recovery and muscle stimulation on lactate removal after sprint swimming. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(9):2560-2567.
5. Turchaninov R, Prilutsky B, Bouimer O. Does Sports Massage Contribute to Post-Workout Recovery? 2009. Available at: http://www.massagevideonetwork.com/sports_massage_and_recovery.doc. Accessed October 31, 2009.
6. Petterson SC, Mizner RL, Stevens JE, et al. Improved function from progressive strengthening interventions after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial with an imbedded prospective cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61(2):174-83.
7. Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Pagano R, et al. Effectiveness of active versus passive recovery strategies after futsal games. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(5):1402-12.
8. Bishop PA, Jones E, Woods AK. Recovery from training: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):1015-24.
9. Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, et al. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):372-380.
10. Tiidus PM. Skeletal muscle damage and repair. Human Kinetics; 2008.
11. Bosak A. Active Versus Passive Recovery in the 72 Hours After a 5-km Race. The Sport Journal. 2008. Available at: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/active-versus-passive-recovery-72-hours-after-5-km-race. Accessed August 13, 2009.
12. Sankoff J. DOMS. Triathlete. 2007.
13. Grunovas A, Silinskas V, Poderys J, Trinkunas E. Peripheral and systemic circulation after local dynamic exercise and recovery using passive foot movement and electrostimulation. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(3):335-343.
14. Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Cortis C, Capranica L. Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic performances following preseason soccer training. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):745-50.
15. Barnett A. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help? Sports Med. 2006;36(9):781-796.
16. Lattier G, Millet GY, Martin A, Martin V. Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise. Part II: Recovery interventions. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(7):509-515.
17. Lattier G, Millet GY, Martin A, Martin V. Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise part I: neuromuscular fatigue. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(6):450-6.
18. Smith LL, Keating MN, Holbert D, et al. The effects of athletic massage on delayed onset muscle soreness, creatine kinase, and neutrophil count: a preliminary report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1994;19(2):93-99.

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EMS for Soft Tissue Repair

1. Lee RC, Canaday DJ, Doong H. A review of the biophysical basis for the clinical application of electric fields in soft-tissue repair. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1993;14(3):319-335.
2. Cho MR, Marler JP, Thatte HS, Golan DE. Control of calcium entry in human fibroblasts by frequency-dependent electrical stimulation. Front. Biosci. 2002;7:a1-8.
3. Rodan GA, Bourret LA, Norton LA. DNA synthesis in cartilage cells is stimulated by oscillating electric fields. Science. 1978;199(4329):690-692.
4. Gardner SE, Frantz RA, Schmidt FL. Effect of electrical stimulation on chronic wound healing: a meta-analysis. Wound Repair Regen. 1999;7(6):495-503.
6. Bourguignon GJ, Bourguignon LY. Electric stimulation of protein and DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts. FASEB J. 1987;1(5):398-402.
7. Kroesen G, Morfill G, Nosenko T, et al. Plasma medicine: an introductory review. New Journal of Physics. 11(11):115012.
8. Cho MR, Thatte HS, Lee RC, Golan DE. Reorganization of microfilament structure induced by ac electric fields. FASEB J. 1996;10(13):1552-1558.
9. Broughton G 2nd, Janis JE, Attinger CE. Wound healing: an overview. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2006;117(7 Suppl):1e-S-32e-S.