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Balance & Elderly
  • Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients

    Author M Runge
    Author G Rehfeld
    Author E Resnicek
    Abstract Objective measures of gait and balance which meet the criteria of reliability and validity are required as a basis for exercise regimens. We established reference values of clinically relevant locomotor and balance performances for geriatric patients. We are using these data for evaluating the effects of different therapeutic approaches to locomotor and balance disorders. Reference values for chair rising. We administered a battery of five tests concerning neuromuscular function, locomotion and balance to a sample of 212 participants without apparent locomotor deficits (139 women, 73 men, mean age 70,5 years, SD 6,78 , median 70 years, range 60 to 90 years, recruited by public announcements). The test battery comprised the 'chair rising test' for measuring lower extremity neuromuscular function (five repetitions of rising from a chair as quickly as possible with arms crossed over the chest). The test has been proven reliable, valid, sensible and predictive for falls and future locomotor status and ADL-status. Chair rising [sec/5x], Range: 5.4-19.4, Mean: 9.1 (women:9.2, men:9.0), SD: 1.97, Median: 8.9. Training of balance and muscle power with Galileo 2000 - preliminary results. Galileo is a device for whole body vibration/oscillatory muscle stimulation. The subject stands with bended knees and hips on a rocking platform with a sagittal axle, which thrusts alternatively the right and left leg 7-14 mm upwards with a frequency of 27 Hz, thereby lengthening the extensor muscles of the lower extremities. The reflexive reaction of the neuromuscular system is a chain of rapid muscle contractions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, n=34 (age: mean 67y, range 61-85, 11 female), cross-over design, intervention group 2 months training program three times a week (each session 3x2 minutes), performance tests of all participants every two weeks). The first 19 subjects have finished the intervention period. They reached mean performance gains in chair rising of 18%, strikingly different to the constant values of the controls! We interpret the findings as improvements in muscle power by the oscillative muscle stimulation.
    Publication Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
    Date Sep 2000
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15758528

    Attachments

    • balance training in geriatrics patients.pdf
  • Balancing with Vibration: A Prelude for “Drift and Act” Balance Control

    Author John G. Milton
    Author Toru Ohira
    Author Juan Luis Cabrera
    Author Ryan M. Fraiser
    Author Janelle B. Gyorffy
    Author Ferrin K. Ruiz
    Author Meredith A. Strauss
    Author Elizabeth C. Balch
    Author Pedro J. Marin
    Author Jeffrey L. Alexander
    Abstract Stick balancing at the fingertip is a powerful paradigm for the study of the control of human balance. Here we show that the mean stick balancing time is increased by about two-fold when a subject stands on a vibrating platform that produces vertical vibrations at the fingertip (0.001 m, 15–50 Hz). High speed motion capture measurements in three dimensions demonstrate that vibration does not shorten the neural latency for stick balancing or change the distribution of the changes in speed made by the fingertip during stick balancing, but does decrease the amplitude of the fluctuations in the relative positions of the fingertip and the tip of the stick in the horizontal plane, A(x,y). The findings are interpreted in terms of a time-delayed “drift and act” control mechanism in which controlling movements are made only when controlled variables exceed a threshold, i.e. the stick survival time measures the time to cross a threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations produced by this mechanism can be decreased by parametric excitation. It is shown that a plot of the logarithm of the vibration-induced increase in stick balancing skill, a measure of the mean first passage time, versus the standard deviation of the A(x,y) fluctuations, a measure of the distance to the threshold, is linear as expected for the times to cross a threshold in a stochastic dynamical system. These observations suggest that the balanced state represents a complex time–dependent state which is situated in a basin of attraction that is of the same order of size. The fact that vibration amplitude can benefit balance control raises the possibility of minimizing risk of falling through appropriate changes in the design of footwear and roughness of the walking surfaces.
    Publication PLoS ONE
    Date October 20, 2009
    URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007427

    Attachments

    • PLoS Full Text PDF
    • PLoS Snapshot
  • Continuous, bilateral Achilles' tendon vibration is not detrimental to human walk

    Author G Courtine
    Author T Pozzo
    Author B Lucas
    Author M Schieppati
    Abstract Sensory feedback from the moving limbs contributes to the regulation of animal and human locomotion. However, the question of the specific role of the various modalities is still open. Further, functional loss of leg afferent fibres due to peripheral neuropathy does not always lead to major alteration in the gait pattern. In order to gain further insight on proprioceptive control of human gait, we applied vibratory tendon stimulation, known to recruit spindle primary afferent fibres, to both triceps surae muscles during normal floor walk. This procedure would disturb organisation and execution of walking, especially if spindles fire continuously and subjects are blindfolded. Vibration induced significant, though minor, changes in duration and length of stance and swing phase, and on speed of walking and kinematics of lower limb segments. No effect was induced on angular displacement of the ankle joint or trunk and head kinematics. This paucity of effects was at variance with the perception of the subjects, who reported illusion of leg stiffness and gait imbalance. These findings would speak for a selective gating of Ia input during locomotion and emphasise the notion that the central nervous system can cope with an unusual continuous input along the Ia fibres from a key muscle like the soleus.
    Publication Brain Research Bulletin
    Date May 1, 2001
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11427345

    Tags:

    • Achilles Tendon
    • Adult
    • Afferent Pathways
    • Biomechanics
    • Electromyography
    • Feedback
    • Functional Laterality
    • Gait
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle Spindles
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Neural Inhibition
    • Physical Stimulation
    • Proprioception
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Continuous bilateral Achilles tendon vibration not detrimental to walk.pdf
  • Effect of a vibration exposure on muscular performance and body balance. Randomized cross-over study

    Author Saila Torvinen
    Author Pekka Kannu
    Author Harri Sievänen
    Author Tero A H Järvinen
    Author Matti Pasanen
    Author Saija Kontulainen
    Author Teppo L N Järvinen
    Author Markku Järvinen
    Author Pekka Oja
    Author Ilkka Vuori
    Abstract This randomized cross-over study was designed to investigate the effects of a 4-min vibration bout on muscle performance and body balance in young, healthy subjects. Sixteen volunteers (eight men, eight women, age 24-33 years) underwent both the 4-min vibration- and sham-interventions in a randomized order on different days. Six performance tests (stability platform, grip strength, isometric extension strength of lower extremities, tandem-walk, vertical jump and shuttle run) were performed 10 min before (baseline), and 2 and 60 min after the intervention. The effect of vibration on the surface electromyography (EMG) of soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles was also investigated. The vibration-loading, based on a tilting platform, induced a transient (significant at the 2-min test) 2.5% net benefit in the jump height (P = 0.019), 3.2% benefit in the isometric extension strength of lower extremities (P=0.020) and 15.7% improvement in the body balance (P = 0.049). In the other 2-min or in the 60-min tests, there were no statistically significant differences between the vibration- and sham-interventions. Decreased mean power frequency in EMG of all muscles during the vibration indicated evolving muscle fatigue, while the root mean square voltage of EMG signal increased in calf muscles. We have shown in this study that a single bout of whole body vibration transiently improves muscle performance of lower extremities and body balance in young healthy adults.
    Publication Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
    Date Mar 2002
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12005157

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Male
    • Motor Activity
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Postural Balance
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Effect of a vibration exposure on muscular performance and.pdf
  • Effect of paraspinal muscle vibration on position sense of the lumbosacral spine

    Author S Brumagne
    Author R Lysens
    Author S Swinnen
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A two-group experimental design with repeated measures on one factor was used. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of the muscle spindles of the paraspinal muscles in lumbosacral position sense of healthy individuals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle spindles are recognized to be important mediators for position and movement sense in peripheral joints, and they are very sensitive to mechanical vibration. However, little is known about their role in the control of lumbosacral spine positioning. METHODS: Twenty-five young individuals with no low back pain were assigned at random to an experimental or control group. Proprioceptive information of the multifidus muscle spindles was distorted in half of the trials in 16 individuals by manually applying vibration (70 Hz, 0.5 mm amplitude) for approximately 5 seconds. The control group (n = 9) only heard the vibrator noise during repositioning of the lumbosacral spine. Repositioning accuracy in the sitting position was estimated by calculating the mean absolute error, constant error, and variable error among six criteria and reproduction sacral tilt angles. RESULTS: Multifidus muscle vibration induced a significant muscle lengthening illusion through which the members of the experimental group undershot the target position (F(1,15) = 30.77, P < 0.0001). The position sense scores of the control group displayed no significant differences across trials (F(1,8) = 0.56, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that precise muscle spindle input of the paraspinal muscles is essential for accurate positioning of the pelvis and lumbosacral spine in a sitting posture.
    Publication Spine
    Date Jul 1, 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404575

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electrophysiology
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lumbosacral Region
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Vibration
  • Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Exercise on Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength and Power in an Older Population: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Author Sven S Rees
    Author Aron J Murphy
    Author Mark L Watsford
    Abstract Background and Purpose: Vibration training is a relatively new exercise intervention. This study investigated the effects of vibration exercise on strength (force-producing capacity) and power in older adults who are healthy. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants (mean age=73.7 years, SD=4.6) were randomly assigned to a vibration exercise training (VIB) group or an exercise without vibration training (EX) group. The interventions consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included isokinetic flexor and extensor strength and power of the hip, knee, and ankle. Results: The VIB group significantly improved ankle plantar flexor strength and power compared with the EX group. However, there were no significant differences between the VIB and EX groups for knee flexor or extensor strength. Discussion and Conclusion: Vibration training contributed to an increase in plantar flexor strength and power. However, the strength gains for the knee and hip flexors and extensors for the VIB group and the EX group were comparable. Future vibration protocols should explore different body positions to target muscles higher up on the leg.
    Publication PHYS THER
    Date April 1, 2008
    URL http://ptjournal.apta.org/cgi/content/abstract/88/4/462

    Attachments

    • HighWire Full Text PDF
    • HighWire Snapshot
    • Human Responses to Vibration Therapy.pdf
  • Efficacy of training program for ambulatory competence in elderly women

    Author Jun Iwamoto
    Author Yohei Otaka
    Author Kazuhiro Kudo
    Author Tsuyoshi Takeda
    Author Mitsuyoshi Uzawa
    Author Kiyoshi Hirabayashi
    Abstract The optimal prevention of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly consists of increasing the bone density and preventing falls. We report on the efficacy of training program to promote ambulatory competence in elderly women. Twenty-five elderly women were enrolled in our training program, which is a three-month program consisting of dynamic balance training with Galileo 900 (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany) once a week, combined with daily static balance (standing on one leg like a flamingo) and resistance (half-squat) training. The mean age of the participants was 72.8 years (range, 61-86 years). After 3 months of training, the step length, knee extensor muscle strength, and maximum standing time on one leg were significantly increased, while the walking speed and hip flexor muscle strength were not significantly altered. During the study period, no serious adverse events such as new vertebral fractures or adverse cardiovascular symptoms were observed in any participant. The present preliminary study shows that our training program may have the potential to promote ambulatory competence in elderly women.
    Publication The Keio Journal of Medicine
    Date Jun 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247512

    Tags:

    • Age Factors
    • Aged
    • Aged, 80 and over
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Hip
    • Humans
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Endurance
    • Time Factors
    • Walking

    Attachments

    • efficacy ot treatment on elderly.pdf
  • Good maintenance of high-impact activity-induced bone gain by voluntary, unsupervised exercises: An 8-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    Author A Heinonen
    Author P Kannus
    Author H Sievänen
    Author M Pasanen
    Author P Oja
    Author I Vuori
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether premenopausal women&apos;s voluntary unsupervised aerobic and step training could maintain the skeletal benefits obtained by an 18-month supervised high-impact training, and if so, to what extent. Thirty women of the original 39 study subjects (i. e., persons who completed the preceding 18-month randomized training intervention and who volunteered to continue the training on their own for a further 8 months) and 19 women of the 45 original control subjects (i.e., persons who volunteered to continue as controls) were included. The study group trained an average of twice per week and the training consisted of regular aerobic and step classes provided by local fitness centers. Areal bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) was measured from the lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter area of the femur, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, calcaneus, and dominant distal radius at baseline and after 18 and 26 months. During the extended 8-month follow-up, the BMD of the study group increased more at the femoral neck (the intergroup change was +0.9% at 18 months and +2.8% at 26 months, p = 0.004 for the change between 18 and 26 months) and remained at the 18-month level at the distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, and calcaneus. In these sites, the statistically significant changes during the entire 26 months of training were 1.7-4.0% in the training group as compared with the changes of -0.9-1.5% in the control group. In the lumbar spine, BMD decreased from the 18-month level in both groups. In conclusion, the significant BMD increases that were obtained by supervised 18-month high-impact training were effectively maintained with subsequent unsupervised regular aerobic and step classes (twice per week). The finding emphasizes the effectiveness and feasibility of self-controlled aerobic and step exercises in the primary prevention of osteoporosis among healthy premenopausal women.
    Publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Date Jan 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9893074

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Bone Density
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Follow-Up Studies
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Premenopause
    • Volition
    • Weight-Bearing

    Attachments

    • Good Maintenance of High-Impact Activity-Induced.pdf
  • Human postural responses to different frequency vibrations of lower leg muscles

    Author A Polónyová
    Author F Hlavacka
    Abstract We analyzed human postural responses to muscle vibration applied at four different frequencies to lower leg muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (GA) or tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. The muscle vibrations induced changes in postural orientation characterized by the center of pressure (CoP) on the force platform surface on which the subjects were standing. Unilateral vibratory stimulation of TA induced body leaning forward and in the direction of the stimulated leg. Unilateral vibration of GA muscles induced body tilting backwards and in the opposite direction of the stimulated leg. The time course of postural responses was similar and started within 1 s after the onset of vibration by a gradual body tilt. When a new slope of the body position was reached, oscillations of body alignment occurred. When the vibrations were discontinued, this was followed by rapid recovery of the initial body position. The relationship between the magnitude of the postural response and frequency of vibration differed between TA and GA. While the magnitude of postural responses to TA vibration increased approximately linearly in the 60-100 Hz range of vibration frequency, the magnitude of response to GA vibration increased linearly only at lower frequencies of 40-60 Hz. The direction of body tilt induced by muscle vibration did not depend on the vibration frequency.
    Publication Physiological Research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca
    Date 2001
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11551147

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Postural Balance
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Human Postural Responses to Different.pdf
  • Human Postural Responses to Vibratory Stimulation of Calf Muscles under Conditions of Visual Inversion

    Author B. N. Smetanin
    Author K. E. Popov
    Author G. V. Kozhina
    Abstract The authors studied postural responses to bilateral vibratory stimulation (70 Hz, 1 mm, 2 s) of the calf triceps proprioceptors or anterior tibial muscles. Anteroposterior body tilts evoked by vibration were recorded by stabilography. The authors compared the values of postural responses under various conditions of visual control, namely, with normal vision, eyes closed, right–left inversion of the visual space by prismatic spectacles, central vision, and diffuse light. Visual inversion influenced the subjects&apos; proprioceptive postural responses. The amplitude of vibration-evoked shifts of the feet pressure center was minimal with eyes open and significantly increased with eyes closed and inverted vision. Postural responses with visual inversion were significantly stronger than with eyes closed. Since inversion spectacles enabled a subject to see only the central part of the visual field (20°), the reference point was the condition of central vision, i.e., spectacles with same visual angle and without prisms. Postural responses were significantly weaker under these conditions than with visual inversion and eyes closed. Visual field inversion by prismatic spectacles made it impossible to use visual information for stabilizing the human upright posture and, moreover, destabized it. True, this holds only for a randomized experimental protocol, which prevents adaptation to prisms.
    Publication Human Physiology
    Date 2002
    URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020274717931

    Attachments

    • SpringerLink Snapshot
  • Inhibition of osteopenia by low magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimuli

    Author Clinton T. Rubin
    Author Dirk W. Sommerfeldt
    Author Stefan Judex
    Author Yi-Xian Qin
    Abstract The identification of anabolic agents for the treatment of metabolic bone disease is a highly prized, and elusive, goal. In searching for the osteogenic (bone-producing) constituents within mechanical stimuli, it was determined that high frequency (10-100 Hz) and low magnitude (<10 microstrain) stimuli were capable of augmenting bone mass and morphology, thereby benefiting both bone quantity and quality. Using animal models, it is shown that these mechanical signals can double bone-formation rates, inhibit disuse osteoporosis and increase the strength of trabecular bone by 25%. Considering that the magnitude of these mechanical signals are several orders of magnitude below those which cause damage to the bone tissue, it is proposed that this modality could be useful in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases.
    Publication Drug Discovery Today
    Date August 15, 2001
    URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T64-43N5YNV-G/2/b19dff03c7076c58168edacfee4a9c6e

    Tags:

    • biomechanical
    • biophysical
    • Osteopenia
    • Osteoporosis
    • treatment

    Attachments

    • INHIBITION OF DISUSE OSTEOPENIA BY LOW LEVEL MECHANICAL.pdf
    • ScienceDirect Snapshot
  • The effect of weight-bearing exercise with low frequency, whole body vibration on lumbosacral proprioception: a pilot study on normal subjects

    Author Tania L Fontana
    Author Carolyn A Richardson
    Author Warren R Stanton
    Abstract Patients with low back pain (LBP) often present with impaired proprioception of the lumbopelvic region. For this reason, proprioception training usually forms part of the rehabilitation protocols. New exercise equipment that produces whole body, low frequency vibration (WBV) has been developed to improve muscle function, and reportedly improves proprioception. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether weightbearing exercise given in conjunction with WBV would affect lumbosacral position sense in healthy individuals. For this purpose, twenty-five young individuals with no LBP were assigned randomly to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received WBV for five minutes while holding a static, semi-squat position. The control group adopted the same weightbearing position for equal time but received no vibration. A two-dimensional motion analysis system measured the repositioning accuracy of pelvic tilting in standing. The experimental (WBV) group demonstrated a significant improvement in repositioning accuracy over time (mean 0.78 degrees) representing 39% improvement. It was concluded that WBV may induce improvements in lumbosacral repositioning accuracy when combined with a weightbearing exercise. Future studies with WBV should focus on evaluating its effects with different types of exercise, the exercise time needed for optimal outcomes, and the effects on proprioception deficits in LBP patients.
    Publication The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy
    Date 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16321133

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Exercise
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lumbosacral Region
    • Male
    • Pelvis
    • Pilot Projects
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Range of Motion, Articular
    • Spindle
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration
    • Weight-Bearing

    Attachments

    • AustJPhysiotherv Proprioception with Galileo.pdf
  • The feasibility of Whole Body Vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial.

    Author Ivan Bautmans
    Author Ellen Van Hees
    Author Jean-Claude Lemper
    Author Tony Mets
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. METHODS: Twenty-four nursing home residents (15 female, 9 male; mean age 77.5 +/- 11.0 years) were randomised (stratification for age, gender and ADL-category) to 6 weeks static WBV exercise (WBV+, N = 13) or control (only static exercise; N = 11). Outcome measures were exercise compliance, timed up-and-go, Tinetti-test, back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip strength and linear isokinetic leg extension. RESULTS: At baseline, WBV+ and control groups were similar for all outcome variables. Twenty-one participants completed the program and attended respectively 96% and 86% of the exercise sessions for the WBV+ and control groups. Training-induced changes in timed up-and-go and Tinetti-test were better for WBV+ compared to control (p = 0.029 for timed up-and-go, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002 for Tinetti body balance and total score respectively). In an alternative analysis (Worst Rank Score & Last Observation Carried Forward) the differences in change remained significant on the Tinetti body balance and total score. No other significant differences in change between both groups were observed. CONCLUSION: In nursing home residents with limited functional dependency, six weeks static WBV exercise is feasible, and is beneficial for balance and mobility. The supplementary benefit of WBV on muscle performance compared to classic exercise remains to be explored further.
    Publication BMC Geriatrics
    Date 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16372905

    Tags:

    • Aged
    • Exercise Tolerance
    • Feasibility Studies
    • Female
    • Frail Elderly
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Postural Balance
    • Vibration

Blood Circulation

  • Acute physiological responses in healthy men during whole-body vibration

    Author Rammohan Maikala
    Author Sharla King
    Author Yagesh Bhambhani
    Abstract Abstract Objective: The influence of backrest support and handgrip contractions on acute metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses were evaluated in 13 healthy men during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). Methods: Following assessment of aerobic fitness during arm cranking, subjects were exposed to frequencies 3, 4.5, and 6 Hz with 0.9 gr.m.s acceleration magnitude on a vibrating base in randomized order, on separate days. Each exposure included 6 min baseline without WBV, 8 min of WBV exposure either ‘with‘ or ‘without’ backrest, 4 min recovery, followed by 8 min of WBV with opposite backrest condition, and 4 min recovery. During the final minute of WBV, subjects performed right hand maximal rhythmic handgrip contractions for one minute. During baseline and before completion of WBV session ‘with’ and ‘without’ backrest, cardiac output was estimated indirectly by carbon dioxide rebreathing. Results: At 3 and 4.5, and 3 and 6 Hz, absolute and relative oxygen uptake demonstrated significantly greater responses during sitting ‘without’ backrest than ‘with’ backrest (P<0.01). At 3 and 4.5 Hz, heart rate and oxygen pulse responses were significantly greater during WBV combined with handgrip contractions than during WBV alone (P<0.01), demonstrating physical work during WBV will enhance greater metabolic responses. Stroke volume was the lowest at 4.5 Hz (P<0.01). Influence of aerobic fitness was evident only in absolute oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse, and ventilation volume (P<0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that subjects exposed to physical work during WBV will experience greater metabolic responses compared to WBV alone, and the physiological responses during WBV resemble to that of a light physical work. Despite low metabolic rates during WBV, the effect of aerobic fitness suggests the importance of physical activity in occupations exposed to WBV.
    Publication International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
    Date February 01, 2006
    URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-005-0029-8

    Attachments

    • SpringerLink Snapshot
  • Cerebral oxygenation and blood volume responses to seated whole-body vibration

    Author Rammohan V Maikala
    Author Sharla King
    Author Yagesh N Bhambhani
    Abstract Role of backrest support and hand grip contractions on regional cerebral oxygenation and blood volume were evaluated by near infrared spectroscopy in 13 healthy men during whole-body vibration (WBV). Subjects were exposed to three WBV (3, 4.5, and 6 Hz at approximately 0.9 g(rms) in the vertical direction), in a randomized order on separate days. During WBV, subjects performed right-hand maximal voluntary intermittent rhythmic hand grip contractions for 1 min. Subjects demonstrated highest oxygenation and blood volume values at 4.5 Hz, however, these responses were similar with and without backrest support (P>0.01). Compared to WBV alone, addition of hand grip exercise during WBV further increased oxygenation (0.07+/-0.11 vs. 0.004+/-0.11 od, P=0.003) and blood volume (0.156+/-0.20 vs. 0.066+/-0.17 od, P=0.000) in the right forehead. Peak oxygen uptake did not correlate to changes in oxygenation and blood volume (P>0.01). Based on the increase in ventilation volume and no change in the ratio of ventilation volume and expired carbon dioxide (P>0.01), it is concluded that WBV induces hyperventilation that might activate the pre-frontal cortical region, thus influencing cerebral responses through neuronal activation.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Dec 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16177916

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Blood Volume
    • Energy Transfer
    • Exercise
    • Hand Strength
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Oxygen
    • Posture
    • Prefrontal Cortex
    • Pulmonary Gas Exchange
    • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
    • Vibration
  • The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects

    Author Everett B Lohman
    Author Jerrold Scott Petrofsky
    Author Colleen Maloney-Hinds
    Author Holly Betts-Schwab
    Author Donna Thorpe
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Circulation plays a vital role in tissue healing. Increases in muscle flexibility and strength, secretion of hormones important in the regeneration and repair process, blood flow, and strength of bone tissues has been attributed to whole body vibration (WBV) combined with exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of short-duration, high-intensity, isometric weight bearing exercise (vibration exercise [VE]) and vibration only on skin blood flow (SBF). MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty-five subjects 18-43 years of age were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 - VE, Group 2 - exercise only, and Group 3 - vibration only. SBF was measured using a laser Doppler imager at three time intervals: 1) initial base line, 2) immediately following intervention, and 3) 10-minutes following intervention. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the three groups&apos; SBF prior to intervention. Immediately following the intervention a difference among groups was found. Post hoc testing revealed that Group 3 subjects&apos; mean SBF was significantly increased at both post-intervention time intervals. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that short duration vibration alone significantly increases SBF; doubling mean SBF for a minimum of 10 minutes following intervention. The emerging therapeutic modality of WBV as a passive intervention appears to increase SBF in individuals with healthy microcirculation.
    Publication Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
    Date Feb 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17261985

    Tags:

    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Blood Flow Velocity
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Laser-Doppler Flowmetry
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Regional Blood Flow
    • Skin
    • Vibration
  • Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume

    Author K Kerschan-Schindl
    Author S Grampp
    Author C Henk
    Author H Resch
    Author E Preisinger
    Author V Fialka-Moser
    Author H Imhof
    Abstract Occupationally used high-frequency vibration is supposed to have negative effects on blood flow and muscle strength. Conversely, low-frequency vibration used as a training tool appears to increase muscle strength, but nothing is known about its effects on peripheral circulation. The aim of this investigation was to quantify alterations in muscle blood volume after whole muscle vibration--after exercising on the training device Galileo 2000 (Novotec GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). Twenty healthy adults performed a 9-min standing test. They stood with both feet on a platform, producing oscillating mechanical vibrations of 26 Hz. Alterations in muscle blood volume of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were assessed with power Doppler sonography and arterial blood flow of the popliteal artery with a Doppler ultrasound machine. Measurements were performed before and immediately after exercising. Power Doppler indices indicative of muscular blood circulation in the calf and thigh significantly increased after exercise. The mean blood flow velocity in the popliteal artery increased from 6.5 to 13.0 cm x s(-1) and its resistive index was significantly reduced. The results indicate that low-frequency vibration does not have the negative effects on peripheral circulation known from occupational high-frequency vibration.
    Publication Clinical Physiology (Oxford, England)
    Date May 2001
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11380538

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Blood Volume
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Occupational Exposure
    • Ultrasonography, Doppler
    • Vibration

Bones

  • ATTIVITA’ FISICA ED OSTEOPOROSI

    Author Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Abstract L’attività fisica riveste un ruolo essenziale nei programmi di lavoro rivolti alla cura ed alla prevenzione dell’osteoporosi. Tuttavia, tali piani di lavoro, per poter ottenere una risposta plastica soddisfacente da parte dell’apparato scheletrico , debbono essere necessariamente di una certa intensità, e proprio per questa ragione, non sempre ottengono una completa compliance da parte del paziente. Gli effetti della somministrazione controllata di vibrazioni sul corpo umano sono noti sin dal 1949, data del primo lavoro scientifico nell’ambito specifico. Tuttavia, solamente quaranta anni più tardi fu scientificamente riconosciuto il valore terapeutico delle vibrazioni per ciò che riguarda il loro effetto osteogenico, che giustifica la loro applicazione in medicina geriatrica in senso generale ed in alcune patologie specifiche come l’osteoporosi. Tale tipo di terapia si rivela particolarmente adatto nel paziente geriatrico che dimostri una scarsa compliance nei confronti di piani di lavoro maggiormente intensi ed impegnativi.
    Date 8/26/2006

    Attachments

    • Articolo 89 tris.doc
  • Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Muscular Performance, balance, and Bone

    Author Saila Torvinen
    University Medical School of the University of Tampere
    Place Tampere, Finland
    Date 2003
    # of Pages 60

    Tags:

    • Spindle

    Attachments

    • Effect of wbv on - torvinen.pdf
  • Estrogen and bone-muscle strength and mass relationships

    Author H Schiessl
    Author H M Frost
    Author W S Jee
    Abstract The largest voluntary loads on bones come from muscles. To adapt bone strength and mass to them, special strain threshold ranges determine where modeling adds and strengthens bone, and where remodeling conserves or removes it, just as different thermostat settings control the heating and cooling systems in a house. If estrogen lowers the remodeling threshold, two things should occur. First, at puberty in girls, bone mass should begin to increase more than in boys with similar muscle strengths, owing to reduced remodeling-dependent bone losses, while gains from longitudinal bone growth and bone modeling continue normally. That increase in bone mass in girls should plateau when their muscle strength stops increasing, since their stronger bones could then reduce bone strains enough to turn modeling off, but could let remodeling keep conserving existing bone. Second, decreased estrogen secretion [or a related factor(s)], as during menopause, should raise the remodeling threshold and make remodeling begin removing that extra bone. That removal should also tend to plateau after the remaining and weaker bone lets bone strains rise to the higher threshold. Postmenopausal bone loss shows the second effects. Previously unremarked relationships in the data of a 1995 Argentine study showed the first effects. This supports the idea that estrogen can affect human bone strength and mass by lowering the remodeling threshold, and loss of estrogen would raise the threshold and help cause postmenopausal bone loss even if other factors help to do it. The Argentine study also suggested ways to study those things and the roles of muscle strength and other factors in controlling bone strength and mass in children and adult humans. Those factors included, in part, hormones, vitamins, calcium, diet, sex, race, age, medications, cytokines, genetic errors, gene expression patterns, and disease.
    Publication Bone
    Date Jan 1998
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9437507

    Tags:

    • Absorptiometry, Photon
    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Biomechanics
    • Body Constitution
    • Bone and Bones
    • Bone Density
    • Bone Development
    • Bone Remodeling
    • Child
    • Child, Preschool
    • Estrogens
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Postmenopause

    Attachments

    • estrogen and bone muscle strenght-Schiessl.pdf
  • Low-level mechanical signals and their potential as a non-pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis

    Author Clinton Rubin
    Author Stefan Judex
    Author Yi-Xian Qin
    Abstract BACKGROUND: exercise is recognised as a critical regulatory signal to the skeletal system, but which specific aspects of exercise are responsible for influencing bone mass and morphology and resisting fractures remains unknown. Recent data indicate that extremely low-level mechanical signals are anabolic to bone, and thus may be used, non-invasively, as a form of &apos;passive&apos; exercise to positively influence skeletal status. OBJECTIVE: to summarise recent experimental studies on the effect of low-level mechanical signals (hypothesised to serve as a surrogate for the spectral content of muscle contractility) as a potential non-pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. RESULTS: low magnitude mechanical signals are anabolic to bone if applied at a high frequency (15-90 Hz). Long-term animal studies (1 year) show that these low-magnitude mechanical signals can increase cancellous bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and enhance bone stiffness and strength. Studies in the mouse have shown that these low-level signals will stimulate bone formation rate and labelled surface in cortical and cancellous bone, but the molecular and genetic regulation of this mechanosensitivity is extremely complex. Preliminary studies in children with disabling conditions and post-menopausal women indicate that such signals can be efficacious in reversing and/or preventing bone loss. CONCLUSIONS: considering that the strains (deformations) that result from these low-level vibrations are far below (<1/1000th) those which may cause damage to the bone, we believe they represent a unique, non-pharmacological prophylaxis for osteoporosis. Given that so many physiologic systems are tuned to specific frequencies, such as sight, hearing and touch, it should not be entirely surprising that the musculoskeletal system would be responsive to frequency as well.
    Publication Age and Ageing
    Date Sep 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926201

    Tags:

    • Animals
    • Biomechanics
    • Bone and Bones
    • Bone Diseases, Metabolic
    • Female
    • Femur
    • Humans
    • Osteoporosis
    • Sheep
    • Stress, Mechanical
    • Tensile Strength
    • Tomography, X-Ray Computed

    Attachments

    • Rubin 2006 Low level mechanical signals in treatment of osteoporosis.pdf
  • Mechanotransduction and functional response of the skeleton to physical stress: the mechanisms and mechanics of bone adaptation

    Author C H Turner
    Author F M Pavalko
    Abstract The skeleton&apos;s primary mechanical function is to provide rigid levers for muscles to act against as they hold the body upright in defiance of gravity. Many bones are exposed to thousands of repetitive loads each day. During growth and development, the skeleton optimizes its architecture by subtle adaptations to these mechanical loads. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process of cellular mechanotransduction including: mechanocoupling - conversion of mechanical forces into local mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stresses, that initiate a response by bone cells; biochemical coupling - transduction of a mechanical signal to a biochemical response involving pathways within the cell membrane and cytoskeleton; cell-to-cell signaling from the sensor cells (probably osteocytes and bone lining cells) to effector cells (osteoblasts or osteoclasts) using prostaglandins and nitric oxide as signaling molecules; and effector response - either bone formation or resorption to cause appropriate architectural changes. These architectural changes tend to adjust and improve the bone structure to its prevailing mechanical environment. Structural changes can be predicted, to some extent, by mathematical formulas derived from three fundamental rules: (1) bone adaptation is driven by dynamic, rather than static, loading; (2) extending the loading duration has a diminishing effect on further bone adaptation; (3) bone cells accommodate to a mechanical loading environment, making them less responsive to routine or customary loading signals.
    Publication Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
    Date 1998
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9811988

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Animals
    • Biomechanics
    • Bone and Bones
    • Humans
    • Models, Biological
    • Osteocytes
    • Signal Transduction
    • Stress, Mechanical

    Attachments

    • Mechanotransduction functional response of the skeleton to stress. Mechanisms bone adaptation.pdf
  • Power training is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Author S. V. Stengel
    Author W. Kemmler
    Author R. Pintag
    Author C. Beeskow
    Author J. Weineck
    Author D. Lauber
    Author W. A. Kalender
    Author K. Engelke
    Abstract Physical exercise has a favorable impact on bones, but optimum training strategies are still under discussion. In this study, we compared the effect of slow and fast resistance exercises on various osteodensitometric parameters. Fifty-three postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a strength training (ST) or a power training group (PT). Both groups carried out a progressive resistance training, a gymnastics session, and a home training over a period of 12 mo. During the resistance training, the ST group used slow and the PT group fast movements; otherwise there were no training differences. All subjects were supplemented with Ca and vitamin D. At baseline and after 12 mo, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also measured anthropometric data and maximum static strength. Frequency and grade of pain were assessed by questionnaire. After 12 mo, significant between-group differences were observed for BMD at the lumbar spine (P < 0.05) and the total hip (P < 0.05). Whereas the PT group maintained BMD at the spine (+0.7 {+/-} 2.1%, not significant) and the total hip (0.0 {+/-} 1.7%, not significant), the ST group lost significantly at both sites (spine: -0.9 {+/-} 1.9%; P < 0.05; total hip: -1.2 {+/-} 1.5%; P < 0.01). No significant between-group differences were observed for anthropometric data, maximum strength, BMD of the forearm, or frequency and grade of pain. These findings suggest that power training is more effective than strength training in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women.
    Publication J Appl Physiol
    Date July 1, 2005
    URL http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/1/181

    Attachments

    • HighWire Full Text PDF
    • HighWire Snapshot
    • Power training is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.pdf
  • The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    Author CLINTON RUBIN
    Author GANG XU
    Author STEFAN JUDEX
    Abstract It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.--Rubin, C., Xu, G., Judex, S. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli.
    Publication FASEB J.
    Date October 1, 2001
    URL http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/12/2225

    Attachments

    • HighWire Snapshot
    • The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by.pdf
  • Vibration training intervention to maintain cartilage thickness and serum concentrations of cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) during immobilization

    Author A-M Liphardt
    Author A Mündermann
    Author S Koo
    Author N Bäcker
    Author T P Andriacchi
    Author J Zange
    Author J Mester
    Author M Heer
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) 14-days of immobilization of young healthy subjects using a 6 degrees -"head-down-tilt-bed-rest"-model (6 degrees -HDT) would reduce cartilage thickness in the knee and serum Cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) concentration and 2) isolated whole body vibration training would counteract the bed rest effects. METHOD: The study was performed and designed in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and is registered as trial DRKS00000140 in the German Clinical Trial Register (register.germanctr.de). Eight male healthy subjects (78.0+/-9.5kg; 179+/-0.96cm, 26+/-5 years) performed 14 days of 6 degrees -HDT. The study was designed as a cross-over-design with two study phases: a training and a control intervention. During the training intervention, subjects underwent 2x5-min whole body vibration training/day (Frequency: 20Hz; amplitude: 2-4mm). Magnetic resonance (MR) images (slice thickness: 2mm; in-plane resolution: 0.35x0.35mm; pixels: 448x512) were taken before and after the 6 degrees -HDT periods. Average cartilage thicknesses were calculated for the load bearing regions on the medial and lateral articulating surfaces in the femur and tibia. RESULTS: While the control intervention resulted in an overall loss in average cartilage thickness of -8% (pre: 3.08mm+/-0.6mm post: 2.82mm+/-0.6mm) in the weight-bearing regions of the tibia, average cartilage thickness increased by 21.9% (pre: 2.66mm+/-0.45mm post: 3.24mm+/-0.63mm) with the vibration intervention. No significant differences were found in the weight-bearing regions of the femur. During both interventions, reduced serum COMP concentrations were observed (control intervention: -13.6+/-8.4%; vibration intervention: -9.9+/-3.3%). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that articular cartilage thickness is sensitive to unloading and that vibration training may be a potent countermeasure against these effects. The sensitivity of cartilage to physical training is of high relevance for training methods in space flight, elite and sport and rehabilitation after illness or injury.
    Publication Osteoarthritis and Cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society
    Date Dec 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19747585

    Attachments

    • Vibration training intervention to maintain cartilage thickness.pdf

Geriatrics

  • A Biomechanical Countermeasure for Disuse Osteopenia

    Author Clinton Rubin
    Abstract Osteoporosis, the progressive loss of bone density that cripples tens of millions on our planet, distinguishes itself as perhaps the greatest physiologic obstacle to an extended human presence in space. Harnessing bone&apos;s strong sensitivity to mechanical signals, there is increasing evidence that extremely low magnitude (<100 microstrain) mechanical signals can be strongly osteogenic if applied at a high frequency (15 to 60 Hz). Such high-frequency, low-magnitude strains comprise a dominant component of a bone&apos;s strain history, indicating that these mechanical events represent a significant determinant of bone morphology. With this in mind, we have been examining if small perturbations in high frequency loading, induced noninvasively into the lower appendicular skeleton, will stimulate an increase in bone mass without sacrificing bone quality. The principal objectives of our research have been to establish the efficacy of this unique, biomechanical countermeasure to inhibit bone loss in an animal model of disuse osteoporosis, and correlate this regulatory influence to the expression patterns of several genes critical to bone formation and resorption. Ten minutes per day of these low-level signals (0.25g), induced noninvasively using an oscillating platform, are able to retain bone mass despite 23 hours and 50 minutes of disuse, while ten minutes of normal weight bearing fails to do to. Longer term animal studies (one year), have shown that low-level mechanical loading, inducing cortical strains on the order of five microstrain, can increase cancellous bone volume fraction, thicken trabeculae, increase trabecular number and enhance bone stiffness and strength. Considering these strain levels are far below (<1/1000th) those which may cause damage to the tissue, we believe these signals hold great potential as a mechanical prophylaxis for osteoporosis. Earth-Based Applications of Research Project Early clinical trials with the LMMS device, including cerebral palsy children, adolescent girls with osteopenia, or post-menopausal women have been encouraging in their ability to inhibit and/or reverse osteoporosis. As we move towards further clinical evaluation of this device for the aging and infirm population, as well as consider it for use to curb bone loss in astronauts during long-term space flight, it is clear that this unique intervention affords the ability to examine the molecular basis of an anabolic signal, as well as establish the extent to which noninvasive mechanical signals can provide an effective countermeasure for disuse osteopenia. Importantly, correlating early gene expression to a longer-term bone response will also permit extrapolation of results from short-term space flights to long-term missions.
    Publisher National Space Biomedical Research Institute
    Date 2001-2004
    URL http://www.nsbri.org/Research/Projects/viewsummary.epl?
    pid=35
  • Anabolism. Low mechanical signals strengthen long bones

    Author C Rubin
    Author A S Turner
    Author S Bain
    Author C Mallinckrodt
    Author K McLeod
    Abstract Although the skeleton&apos;s adaptability to load-bearing has been recognized for over a century, the specific mechanical components responsible for strengthening it have not been identified. Here we show that after mechanically stimulating the hindlimbs of adult sheep on a daily basis for a year with 20-minute bursts of very-low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration, the density of the spongy (trabecular) bone in the proximal femur is significantly increased (by 34.2%) compared to controls. As the strain levels generated by this treatment are three orders of magnitude below those that damage bone tissue, this anabolic, non-invasive stimulus may have potential for treating skeletal conditions such as osteoporosis.
    Publication Nature
    Date Aug 9, 2001
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11493908

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Animals
    • Bone and Bones
    • Bone Density
    • Female
    • Femur
    • Hindlimb
    • Sheep
    • Vibration
    • Weight-Bearing
  • Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health-related quality of life of nursing home residents

    Author Olivier Bruyere
    Author Marc-Antoine Wuidart
    Author Elio Di Palma
    Author Margaret Gourlay
    Author Olivier Ethgen
    Author Florent Richy
    Author Jean-Yves Reginster
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of whole body vibration in the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two elderly volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Six-week vibration intervention plus physical therapy (PT) (n=22) or PT alone (n=20). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed gait and body balance using the Tinetti test (maximum scores of 12 for gait, 16 for body balance, 28 for global score), motor capacity using the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, the vibration intervention group improved by a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.4+/-2.3 points on the gait score compared with no score change in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group improved by 3.5+/-2.1 points on the body balance score compared with a decrease of 0.3+/-1.2 points in the control group ( P <.001). TUG test time decreased by 11.0+/-8.6 seconds in the treated group compared with an increase of 2.6+/-8.8 seconds in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group had significantly greater improvements from baseline on 8 of 9 items on the SF-36 compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Controlled whole body vibration can improve elements of fall risk and HRQOL in elderly patients.
    Publication Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    Date Feb 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15706558

    Tags:

    • Accidental Falls
    • Aged
    • Aged, 80 and over
    • Belgium
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Health Status Indicators
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Nursing Homes
    • Physical Therapy Modalities
    • Prospective Studies
    • Quality of Life

    Attachments

    • wbv to decrease fall risk.pdf
  • Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Author Sabine M P Verschueren
    Author Machteld Roelants
    Author Christophe Delecluse
    Author Stephan Swinnen
    Author Dirk Vanderschueren
    Author Steven Boonen
    Abstract High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this randomized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: High-frequency mechanical strain has been shown to stimulate bone strength in different animal models. However, the effects of vibration exercise on the human skeleton have rarely been studied. Particularly in postmenopausal women-who are most at risk of developing osteoporosis-randomized controlled data on the safety and efficacy of vibration loading are lacking. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the musculoskeletal effects of high-frequency loading by means of whole body vibration (WBV) in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy volunteers (age, 58-74 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration training group (WBV, n = 25), a resistance training group (RES, n = 22), or a control group (CON, n = 23). The WBV group and the RES group trained three times weekly for 24 weeks. The WBV group performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 2.28-5.09g), which mechanically loaded the bone and evoked reflexive muscle contractions. The RES group trained knee extensors by dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises, increasing from low (20 RM) to high (8 RM) resistance. The CON group did not participate in any training. Hip bone density was measured using DXA at baseline and after the 6-month intervention. Isometric and dynamic strength were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Data were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: No vibration-related side effects were observed. Vibration training improved isometric and dynamic muscle strength (+15% and + 16%, respectively; p < 0.01) and also significantly increased BMD of the hip (+0.93%, p < 0.05). No changes in hip BMD were observed in women participating in resistance training or age-matched controls (-0.60% and -0.62%, respectively; not significant). Serum markers of bone turnover did not change in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that WBV training may be a feasible and effective way to modify well-recognized risk factors for falls and fractures in older women and support the need for further human studies.
    Publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Date Mar 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15040822

    Tags:

    • Aged
    • Bone Density
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Hip
    • Humans
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
    • Pilot Projects
    • Postmenopause
    • Postural Balance
    • Posture
    • Spindle
    • Time Factors
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Verschueren_EffectHipStrengthControl.pdf
  • Effects of whole-body vibration in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study

    Author Othmar Schuhfried
    Author Christian Mittermaier
    Author Tatjana Jovanovic
    Author Karin Pieber
    Author Tatjana Paternostro-Sluga
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a whole-body vibration (mechanical oscillations) in comparison to a placebo administration leads to better postural control, mobility and balance in patients with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a university department of physical medicine and rehabilitation. SUBJECTS: Twelve multiple sclerosis patients with moderate disability (Kurtzke&apos;s Expanded Disability Status Scale 2.5-5) were allocated either to the intervention group or to the placebo group. INTERVENTIONS: In the intervention group a whole-body vibration at low frequency (2.0-4.4 Hz oscillations at 3-mm amplitude) in five series of 1 min each with a 1-min break between the series was applied. In the placebo group a Burst-transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application on the nondominant forearm in five series of 1 min each with a 1-min break between the series was applied as well. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Posturographic assessment using the Sensory Organization Test, the Timed Get Up and Go Test and the Functional Reach Test immediately preceding the application, 15 min, one week and two weeks after the application. The statistical analysis was applied to the change score from preapplication values to values 15 min, one week and two weeks post intervention. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo group the intervention group showed advantages in terms of the Sensory Organization Test and the Timed Get Up and Go Test at each time point of measurement after the application. The effects were strongest one week after the intervention, where significant differences for the change score (p = 0.041) were found for the Timed Get Up and Go Test with the mean score reducing from 9.2 s (preapplication) to 8.2 s one week after whole-body vibration and increasing from 9.5 s (preapplication) to 10.2 s one week after placebo application. The mean values of the posturographic assessment increased from 70.5 points (preapplication) to 77.5 points one week after whole body vibration and increased only from 67.2 points (preapplication) to 67.5 points one week after the placebo application. No differences were found for the Functional Reach Test. CONCLUSION: The results of this pilot study indicated that whole-body vibration may positively influence the postural control and mobility in multiple sclerosis patients.
    Publication Clinical Rehabilitation
    Date Dec 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323382

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Double-Blind Method
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Motor Skills
    • Movement
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Postural Balance
    • Posture
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration
  • High-frequency vibration training increases muscle power in postmenopausal women

    Author Cosimo Roberto Russo
    Author Fulvio Lauretani
    Author Stefania Bandinelli
    Author Benedetta Bartali
    Author Chiara Cavazzini
    Author Jack M Guralnik
    Author Luigi Ferrucci
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To test whether training on a high-frequency (28Hz) vibrating platform improves muscle power and bone characteristics in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient clinic in a general hospital in Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women (intervention group, n=14; matched controls, n=15). INTERVENTION: Participants stood on a ground-based oscillating platform for three 2-minute sessions for a total of 6 minutes per training session, twice weekly for 6 months. The controls did not receive any training. Both groups were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Muscle power, calculated from ground reaction forces produced by landing after jumping as high as possible on a forceplate, cortical bone density, and biomarkers of bone turnover. RESULTS: Over 6 months, muscle power improved by about 5% in women who received the intervention, and it remained unchanged in controls (P=.004). Muscle force remained stable in both the intervention and control groups. No significant changes were observed in bone characteristics. CONCLUSION: Reflex muscular contractions induced by vibration training improve muscle power in postmenopausal women.
    Publication Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    Date Dec 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669194

    Tags:

    • Analysis of Variance
    • Erythema
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Postmenopause
    • Posture
    • Pruritus
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • wbv increase power in postmenopausal women.pdf
  • L’UTILIZZO DELLE VIBRAZIONI IN MEDICINA GERIATRICA

    Author Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Abstract Primer to the utilization of vibration therapy in geriatrics, in Italian.

    Attachments

    • Protocollo vibrazioni GERIATRIA1.pdf
  • Low Magnitude and High Frequency Mechanical Loading Prevents Decreased Bone Formation Responses of 2T3 Preosteoblasts

    Author Mamta J. Patel
    Author Kyungh Hwa Chang
    Author Michelle C. Sykes
    Author Roger Talish
    Author Clinton Rubin
    Author Hanjoong Jo
    Abstract Bone loss due to osteoporosis or disuse such as in paraplegia or microgravity is a significant health problem. As a treatment for osteoporosis, brief exposure of intact animals or humans to low magnitude and high frequency (LMHF) mechanical loading has been shown to normalize and prevent bone loss. However, the underlying molecular changes and the target cells by which LMHF mechanical loading alleviate bone loss are not known. Here, we hypothesized that direct application of LMHF mechanical loading to osteoblasts alters their cell responses, preventing decreased bone formation induced by disuse or microgravity conditions. To test our hypothesis, preosteoblast 2T3 cells were exposed to a disuse condition using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) and intervened with an LMHF mechanical load (0.1-0.4g at 30Hz for 10-60 min/day). Exposure of 2T3 cells to the RPM decreased bone formation responses as determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization even in the presence of a submaximal dose of BMP4 (20ng/ml). However, LMHF mechanical loading prevented the RPM-induced decrease in ALP activity and mineralization. Mineralization induced by LMHF mechanical loading was enhanced by treatment with bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and blocked by the BMP antagonist noggin, suggesting a role for BMPs in this response. In addition, LMHF mechanical loading rescued the RPM-induced decrease in gene expression of ALP, runx2, osteomodulin, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, and osteoglycin. These findings suggest that preosteoblasts may directly respond to LMHF mechanical loading to induce differentiation responses. The mechanosensitive genes identified here provide potential targets for pharmaceutical treatments that may be used in combination with low level mechanical loading to better treat osteoporosis or disuse-induced bone loss.
    Publication Journal of cellular biochemistry
    Date 2009-2-1

    Attachments

    • PubMed Central Link
  • Mechanical stimulation in the form of vibration prevents postmenopausal bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    Author J Flieger
    Author T Karachalios
    Author L Khaldi
    Author P Raptou
    Author G Lyritis
    Abstract Physical exercise is recommended for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, its exact role and effectiveness in adulthood is unclear. While vigorous exercise of long duration enhances bone density, few adult individuals comply with such training programs. The present study evaluates the influence of nonphysiological mechanical stimulation, in the form of low intensity vibration (frequency: 50 Hz, acceleration: 2 g, 30 min/day for 5 days/week), on the prevention of bone loss in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the ovariectomised groups of rats a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bone density (femur and tibia) was recorded at 5 weeks postovariectomy. This effect was maintained for the 12 week duration of the study. Vibration prevented early bone loss after ovariectomy. Vibrated ovariectomised rats showed statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) BMD values compared to those of their ovariectomised controls at 5 weeks. Vibration did not influence the bone density of the SHAM-operated rats. Although vibration increased ultimate strength (fracture load of the rat femur) in the ovariectomised rats, this finding was not statistically significant. Our data indicate that this method of safe and easily applicable vibration, in the form of a vibrating platform, is effective in preventing early postovariectomy bone loss in an animal model.
    Publication Calcified Tissue International
    Date Dec 1998
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9817946

    Tags:

    • Animals
    • Bone Density
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
    • Ovariectomy
    • Postmenopause
    • Rats
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Mechanical Stim Vibration Prevents Postmenopausal Bone Loss in Rats.pdf
  • Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by a low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimuli: a clinical trial assessing compliance, efficacy, and safety

    Author Clinton Rubin
    Author Robert Recker
    Author Diane Cullen
    Author John Ryaby
    Author Joan McCabe
    Author Kenneth McLeod
    Abstract A 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of 70 postmenopausal women demonstrated that brief periods (<20 minutes) of a low-level (0.2g, 30 Hz) vibration applied during quiet standing can effectively inhibit bone loss in the spine and femur, with efficacy increasing significantly with greater compliance, particularly in those subjects with lower body mass. INTRODUCTION: Indicative of the anabolic potential of mechanical stimuli, animal models have demonstrated that short periods (<30 minutes) of low-magnitude vibration (<0.3g), applied at a relatively high frequency (20-90 Hz), will increase the number and width of trabeculae, as well as enhance stiffness and strength of cancellous bone. Here, a 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 women, 3-8 years past the menopause, examined the ability of such high-frequency, low-magnitude mechanical signals to inhibit bone loss in the human. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each day, one-half of the subjects were exposed to short-duration (two 10-minute treatments/day), low-magnitude (2.0 m/s2 peak to peak), 30-Hz vertical accelerations (vibration), whereas the other half stood for the same duration on placebo devices. DXA was used to measure BMD at the spine, hip, and distal radius at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-six women completed the 1-year treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The detection threshold of the study design failed to show any changes in bone density using an intention-to-treat analysis for either the placebo or treatment group. Regression analysis on the a priori study group demonstrated a significant effect of compliance on efficacy of the intervention, particularly at the lumbar spine (p = 0.004). Posthoc testing was used to assist in identifying various subgroups that may have benefited from this treatment modality. Evaluating those in the highest quartile of compliance (86% compliant), placebo subjects lost 2.13% in the femoral neck over 1 year, whereas treatment was associated with a gain of 0.04%, reflecting a 2.17% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.06). In the spine, the 1.6% decrease observed over 1 year in the placebo group was reduced to a 0.10% loss in the active group, indicating a 1.5% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.09). Considering the interdependence of weight, the spine of lighter women (<65 kg), who were in the highest quartile of compliance, exhibited a relative benefit of active treatment of 3.35% greater BMD over 1 year (p = 0.009); for the mean compliance group, a 2.73% relative benefit in BMD was found (p = 0.02). These preliminary results indicate the potential for a noninvasive, mechanically mediated intervention for osteoporosis. This non-pharmacologic approach represents a physiologically based means of inhibiting the decline in BMD that follows menopause, perhaps most effectively in the spine of lighter women who are in the greatest need of intervention.
    Publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Date Mar 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15040821

    Tags:

    • Bone Density
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Middle Aged
    • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
    • Patient Compliance
    • Postmenopause
    • Prospective Studies
    • Time Factors
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • 2004 JBMR-Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss - Rubin Recker.pdf
  • Suppressive mechanism of gastric motility by whole-body vibration

    Author T Ishitake
    Author Y Miyazaki
    Author H Ando
    Author T Matoba
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of gastric motility suppression by exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). METHODS: The gastric motility was evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) under food intake and autonomic nerve blocking agents in ten healthy volunteers. Sinusoidal vertical vibration with a frequency of 4 Hz (1.0 ms(-2) rms) was given to the subject for 10 min. RESULTS: The amplitude of EGG wave and the power spectrum corresponding to the slow wave component was remarkably decreased by vibration exposure. Food intake enhanced the gastric motility about 2.5-fold in the power spectral density. During and after vibration exposure, the response mode was similar to those at fasting states. Under the influence of anticholinergic (scopolamine) and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents (prazosin), the power spectra were decreased. A further decrease was observed during vibration exposure. A beta-adrenergic blocking agent (propranolol) led to a marked increase in the amplitude of EGG and its power spectrum. With pretreatment by a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, however, vibration exposure reduced both of them. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that short-term exposure to WBV can suppress the gastric myoelectric activity, the responses on which may be mediating by neurohumoral effects as well as the mechanical effect of WBV.
    Publication International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
    Date Oct 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10541912

    Tags:

    • Adrenergic Antagonists
    • Adult
    • Cholinergic Antagonists
    • Eating
    • Gastrointestinal Motility
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Statistics, Nonparametric
    • Vibration
  • Transmissibility of 15-hertz to 35-hertz vibrations to the human hip and lumbar spine: determining the physiologic feasibility of delivering low-level anabolic mechanical stimuli to skeletal regions at greatest risk of fracture because of osteoporosis

    Author Clinton Rubin
    Author Malcolm Pope
    Author J Chris Fritton
    Author Marianne Magnusson
    Author Tommy Hansson
    Author Kenneth McLeod
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Experiments were undertaken to determine the degree to which high-frequency (15-35 Hz) ground-based, whole-body vibration are transmitted to the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae of the standing human. OBJECTIVES: To establish if extremely low-level (<1 g, where 1 g = earth&apos;s gravitational field, or 9.8 ms-2) mechanical stimuli can be efficiently delivered to the axial skeleton of a human. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Vibration is most often considered an etiologic factor in low back pain as well as several other musculoskeletal and neurovestibular complications, but recent in vivo experiments in animals indicates that extremely low-level mechanical signals delivered to bone in the frequency range of 15 to 60 Hz can be strongly anabolic. If these mechanical signals can be effectively and noninvasively transmitted in the standing human to reach those sites of the skeleton at greatest risk of osteoporosis, such as the hip and lumbar spine, then vibration could be used as a unique, nonpharmacologic intervention to prevent or reverse bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under sterile conditions and local anesthesia, transcutaneous pins were placed in the spinous process of L4 and the greater trochanter of the femur of six volunteers. Each subject stood on an oscillating platform and data were collected from accelerometers fixed to the pins while a vibration platform provided sinusoidal loading at discrete frequencies from 15 to 35 Hz, with accelerations ranging up to 1 g(peak-peak). RESULTS: With the subjects standing erect, transmissibility at the hip exceeded 100% for loading frequencies less than 20 Hz, indicating a resonance. However, at frequencies more than 25 Hz, transmissibility decreased to approximately 80% at the hip and spine. In relaxed stance, transmissibility decreased to 60%. With 20-degree knee flexion, transmissibility was reduced even further to approximately 30%. A phase-lag reached as high as 70 degrees in the hip and spine signals. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that extremely low-level, high-frequency mechanical accelerations are readily transmitted into the lower appendicular and axial skeleton of the standing individual. Considering the anabolic potential of exceedingly low-level mechanical signals in this frequency range, this study represents a key step in the development of a biomechanically based treatment for osteoporosis.
    Publication Spine
    Date Dec 1, 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14652479

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Biomechanics
    • Feasibility Studies
    • Female
    • Femur
    • Fractures, Bone
    • Hip
    • Humans
    • Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Male
    • Osteoporosis
    • Risk Factors
    • Vibration
  • Vibration therapy in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study exploring its effects on tone, muscle force, sensation and functional performance

    Author F Schyns
    Author L Paul
    Author K Finlay
    Author C Ferguson
    Author E Noble
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) on tone, muscle force, sensation and functional performance in people with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: A randomized cross-over pilot study. SETTING: Revive MS Support Therapy Centre. Glasgow, UK. SUBJECTS: Sixteen people with multiple sclerosis were randomly allocated to one of two groups. INTERVENTION: Group 1 received four weeks of whole body vibration plus exercise three times per week, two weeks of no intervention and then four weeks of exercise alone three times per week. Group 2 were given the two treatment interventions in the reverse order to group 1. MAIN MEASURES: Ten-metre walk, Timed Up and Go Test, Modified Ashworth Scale, Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88), lower limb muscle force, Nottingham Sensory Assessment and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) were used before and after intervention. RESULTS: The exercise programme had positive effects on muscle force and well-being, but there was insufficient evidence that the addition of whole body vibration provided any further benefit. The Modified Ashworth Scale was generally unaffected by either intervention, although, for each group, results from the MSSS-88 showed whole body vibration and exercises reduced muscle spasms (P = 0.02). Although results for the 10-m walk and Timed Up and Go Test improved, this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.56; P = 0.70, respectively). For most subjects sensation was unaffected by whole body vibration. CONCLUSION: Exercise may be beneficial to those with multiple sclerosis, but there is limited evidence that the addition of whole body vibration provides any additional improvements. Further larger scale studies into the effects of whole body vibration in people with multiple sclerosis are essential.
    Publication Clinical Rehabilitation
    Date Sep 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561035

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Combined Modality Therapy
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Hand Strength
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Pilot Projects
    • Quality of Life
    • Vibration
    • Walking
  • Whole-body-vibration training increases knee-extension strength and speed of movement in older women

    Author Machteld Roelants
    Author Christophe Delecluse
    Author Sabine M Verschueren
    Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of 24 weeks of whole-body-vibration (WBV) training on knee-extension strength and speed of movement and on counter-movement jump performance in older women. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Leuven, Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-nine postmenopausal women, off hormone replacement therapy, aged 58 to 74, were randomly assigned to a WBV group (n=30), a resistance-training group (RES, n=30), or a control group (n=29). INTERVENTION: The WBV group and the RES group trained three times a week for 24 weeks. The WBV group performed unloaded static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform, which provokes reflexive muscle activity. The RES group trained knee-extensors by performing dynamic leg-press and leg-extension exercises increasing from low (20 repetitions maximum (RM)) to high (8RM) resistance. The control group did not participate in any training. MEASUREMENTS: Pre-, mid- (12 weeks), and post- (24 weeks) isometric strength and dynamic strength of knee extensors were measured using a motor-driven dynamometer. Speed of movement of knee extension was assessed using an external resistance equivalent to 1%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of isometric maximum. Counter-movement jump performance was determined using a contact mat. RESULTS: Isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength increased significantly (P<.001) in the WBV group (mean+/-standard error 15.0+/-2.1% and 16.1+/-3.1%, respectively) and the RES group (18.4+/-2.8% and 13.9+/-2.7%, respectively) after 24 weeks of training, with the training effects not significantly different between the groups (P=.558). Speed of movement of knee extension significantly increased at low resistance (1% or 20% of isometric maximum) in the WBV group only (7.4+/-1.8% and 6.3+/-2.0%, respectively) after 24 weeks of training, with no significant differences in training effect between the WBV and the RES groups (P=.391; P=.142). Counter-movement jump height enhanced significantly (P<.001) in the WBV group (19.4+/-2.8%) and the RES group (12.9+/-2.9%) after 24 weeks of training. Most of the gain in knee-extension strength and speed of movement and in counter-movement jump performance had been realized after 12 weeks of training. CONCLUSION: WBV is a suitable training method and is as efficient as conventional RES training to improve knee-extension strength and speed of movement and counter-movement jump performance in older women. As previously shown in young women, it is suggested that the strength gain in older women is mainly due to the vibration stimulus and not only to the unloaded exercises performed on the WBV platform.
    Publication Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    Date Jun 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15161453

    Tags:

    • Aged
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Knee Joint
    • Middle Aged
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Vibration
    • Weight Lifting

Hormonal

  • Effect of whole-body vibration in the vertical axis on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in piglets

    Author S. Perremans
    Author J. M. Randall
    Author G. Rombouts
    Author E. Decuypere
    Author R. Geers
    Abstract Vibration, being a consequence of motion during transport, may impair the welfare of pigs. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate during transport simulation the use of ACTH and cortisol plasma levels, which are part of a basic adaptation mechanism of pigs and 2) to define comfort conditions for pigs related to the frequency and acceleration of vibration. Pigs with a body weight between 20 and 25 kg were vibrated in the vertical direction for 2 h at 2, 4, 8, and 18 Hz, in combination with root mean square acceleration magnitudes of 1 or 3 m/s2. Blood was sampled at regular intervals before, during, and after vibration as the pig&apos;s behaviors were recorded. Data on ACTH, cortisol, and behavior could be collected from 104 vibrated pigs and 21 controls. In addition, eight animals (3 controls, 5 vibrated) were treated with 0.1 mg of dexamethasone/kg BW, eight animals (3 controls, 8 vibrated) with 0.1 mg naloxone/kg BW, and six (2 controls, 4 vibrated) with a physiological salt solution. Blood samples were taken and products were administrated via an intravenous catheter. The pigs spent less time lying during both hours of vibration treatment than during control conditions. Compared with 2 and 4 Hz, time spent lying was 10 times shorter at 8 Hz and 18 times shorter at 18 Hz. At 1030, ACTH levels were significantly higher than basal levels in animals vibrated at 2 (P < 0.0001), 4 (P < 0.002), and 18 Hz (P < 0.0006). After 1 h, levels returned to basal values. Cortisol levels increased very rapidly after the beginning of vibration (P < 0.0001) and remained higher until 1 h after cessation of vibration (P < 0.003). An inferrence of the lines of equal responses for ACTH and cortisol indicated that, in the beginning of vibration exposure, pigs were extremely susceptible to vibrations at lower frequencies (2 and 4 Hz), whereas at the end of vibration exposure the responses were higher at 18 Hz. The application of dexamethasone and naloxone underpinned the emotional component of the response strategy of pigs to vibration. Hence, vibration during transport should be minimized in order to enhance the adaptive capacities of pigs.
    Publication J. Anim Sci.
    Date April 1, 2001
    URL http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/abstract/79/4/975

    Attachments

    • effetc of wbv on hormone cortisol perremans.pdf
    • HighWire Full Text PDF
    • HighWire Snapshot
  • Effects of vibration and resistance training on neuromuscular and hormonal measures

    Author Thue Kvorning
    Author Malene Bagger
    Author Paolo Caserotti
    Author Klavs Madsen
    Abstract The aim was to study whether whole body vibration (WBV) combined with conventional resistance training (CRT) induces a higher increase in neuromuscular and hormonal measures compared with CRT or WBV, respectively. Twenty-eight young men were randomized in three groups; squat only (S), combination of WBV and squat (S+V) and WBV only (V). S+V performed six sets with eight repetitions with corresponding eight repetition maximum (RM) loads on the vibrating platform, whereas S and V performed the same protocol without WBV and resistance, respectively. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) with electromyography (EMG) measurements during leg press, counter movement jump (CMJ) measures (mechanical performance) including jump height, mean power (Pmean), peak power (Ppeak) and velocity at Ppeak (Vppeak) and acute hormonal responses to training sessions were measured before and after a 9-week training period. ANOVA showed no significant changes between the three groups after training in any neuromuscular variable measured [except Pmean, S higher than V (P<0.05)]. However, applying t tests within each group revealed that MVC increased in S and S+V after training (P<0.05). Jump height, Pmean and Ppeak increased only in S, concomitantly with increased Vppeak in all groups (P<0.05). Testosterone increased during training sessions in S and S+V (P<0.05). Growth hormone (GH) increased in all groups but S+V showed higher responses than S and V (P<0.05). Cortisol increased only in S+V (P<0.05). We conclude that combined WBV and CRT did not additionally increase MVC and mechanical performance compared with CRT alone. Furthermore, WBV alone did not increase MVC and mechanical performance in spite of increased GH.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Mar 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16482475

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Body Mass Index
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Hormones
    • Human Growth Hormone
    • Humans
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Lifting
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Testosterone
    • Vibration
  • Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men

    Author C Di Loreto
    Author A Ranchelli
    Author P Lucidi
    Author G Murdolo
    Author N Parlanti
    Author A De Cicco
    Author O Tsarpela
    Author G Annino
    Author C Bosco
    Author F Santeusanio
    Author G B Bolli
    Author P De Feo
    Abstract Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.
    Publication Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
    Date Apr 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15233550

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Blood Glucose
    • Body Mass Index
    • Epinephrine
    • Exercise
    • Glucagon
    • Hormones
    • Human Growth Hormone
    • Humans
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Insulin
    • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Norepinephrine
    • Testosterone
    • Vibration
  • Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men

    Author C Bosco
    Author M Iacovelli
    Author O Tsarpela
    Author M Cardinale
    Author M Bonifazi
    Author J Tihanyi
    Author M Viru
    Author A De Lorenzo
    Author A Viru
    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6) years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal WBV, 10 times for 60 s, with 60 s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6 min was allowed after 5 vibration sets). Neuromuscular performance tests consisting of counter-movement jumps and maximal dynamic leg presses on a slide machine, performed with an extra load of 160% of the subjects body mass, and with both legs were administered before and immediately after the WBV treatment. The average velocity, acceleration, average force, and power were calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) were recorded from the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles simultaneously during the leg-press measurement. Blood samples were also collected, and plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (C) were measured. The results showed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of T and GH, whereas C levels decreased. An increase in the mechanical power output of the leg extensor muscles was observed together with a reduction in EMGrms activity. Neuromuscular efficiency improved, as indicated by the decrease in the ratio between EMGrms and power. Jumping performance, which was measured using the counter-movement jump test, was also enhanced. Thus, it can be argued that the biological mechanism produced by vibration is similar to the effect produced by explosive power training (jumping and bouncing). The enhancement of explosive power could have been induced by an increase in the synchronisation activity of the motor units, and/or improved co-ordination of the synergistic muscles and increased inhibition of the antagonists. These results suggest that WBV treatment leads to acute responses of hormonal profile and neuromuscular performance. It is therefore likely that the effect of WBV treatment elicited a biological adaptation that is connected to a neural potentiation effect, similar to those reported to occur following resistance and explosive power training. In conclusion, it is suggested that WBV influences proprioceptive feedback mechanisms and specific neural components, leading to an improvement of neuromuscular performance. Moreover, since the hormonal responses, characterised by an increase in T and GH concentration and a decrease in C concentration, and the increase in neuromuscular effectiveness were simultaneous but independent, it is speculated that the two phenomena might have common underlying mechanisms.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Apr 2000
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10774867

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Human Growth Hormone
    • Humans
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Osmolar Concentration
    • Spindle
    • Testosterone
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men.pdf
  • The effects of whole body vibration on humans: dangerous or advantageous?

    Author M Cardinale
    Author M H Pope
    Abstract The effects of whole body vibration (WBV) have been studied extensively in occupational medicine. In particular, it has been shown that when the body undergoes chronically to whole body vibrations spinal degeneration is likely to be one of the deleterious outcomes. Low back pain has been shown to be the leading major cause of industrial disability in the population under the age of 45 years and has been linked to whole body vibration exposure encountered in some industrial settings. Whole body vibration has been recently purposed as an exercise intervention suggesting its effectiveness in increasing force-generating capacity in lower limbs and low back. It has also been reported to be an effective non-pharmacological intervention for patients with low back pain. Relatively short exposure to whole body vibration has been also shown to increase the serum levels of testosterone and growth hormone. The combined effects on the neuromuscular system and endocrine system seem to suggest its effectiveness as a therapeutic approach for sarcopenia and possibly osteoporosis. Due to the danger of long-term exposure to whole body vibration, it is important to develop safe exercise protocols in order to determine exercise programs for different populations.
    Publication Acta Physiologica Hungarica
    Date 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14594190

    Tags:

    • Exercise Therapy
    • Humans
    • Low Back Pain
    • Neuromuscular Diseases
    • Occupational Exposure
    • Osteoporosis
    • Spinal Diseases
    • Vibration

Neuromuscular Effects

  • Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise

    Author Jörn Rittweger
    Author Marcus Mutschelknauss
    Author Dieter Felsenberg
    Abstract The effects of hard squatting exercise with (VbX+) and without (VbX-) vibration on neuromuscular function were tested in 19 healthy young volunteers. Before and after the exercise, three different tests were performed: maximum serial jumping for 30 s, electromyography during isometric knee extension at 70% of the maximum voluntary torque, and the quantitative analysis of the patellar tendon reflex. Between VbX+ and VbX- values, there was no difference found under baseline conditions. Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter in VbX+ than in VbX- (349 +/- 338 s versus 515 +/- 338 s), but blood lactate (5.49 +/- 2.73 mmol l-1 versus 5.00 +/- 2.26 mmol l-1) and subjectively perceived exertion (rate of perceived exertion values 18.1 +/- 1.2 versus 18.6 +/- 1.6) at the termination of exercise indicate comparable levels of fatigue. After the exercise, comparable effects were observed on jump height, ground contact time, and isometric torque. The vastus lateralis mean frequency during isometric torque, however, was higher after VbX+ than after VbX-. Likewise, the tendon reflex amplitude was significantly greater after VbX+ than after VbX- (4.34 +/- 3.63 Nm versus 1.68 +/- 1.32 Nm). It is followed that in exercise unto comparable degrees of exhaustion and muscular fatigue, superimposed 26 Hz vibration appears to elicit an alteration in neuromuscular recruitment patterns, which apparently enhance neuromuscular excitability. Possibly, this effect may be exploited for the design of future training regimes.
    Publication Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
    Date Mar 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12641601

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Knee Joint
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Motor Activity
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Patella
    • Physical Endurance
    • Reflex, Stretch
    • Vibration
  • Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in man

    Author J Rittweger
    Author G Beller
    Author D Felsenberg
    Abstract Vibration exercise (VE) is a new neuromuscular training method which is applied in athletes as well as in prevention and therapy of osteoporosis. The present study explored the physiological mechanisms of fatigue by VE in 37 young healthy subjects. Exercise and cardiovascular data were compared to progressive bicycle ergometry until exhaustion. VE was performed in two sessions, with a 26 Hz vibration on a ground plate, in combination with squatting plus additional load (40% of body weight). After VE, subjectively perceived exertion on Borg&apos;s scale was 18, and thus as high as after bicycle ergometry. Heart rate after VE increased to 128 min-1, blood pressure to 132/52 mmHg, and lactate to 3.5 mM. Oxygen uptake in VE was 48.8% of VO2max in bicycle ergometry. After VE, voluntary force in knee extension was reduced by 9.2%, jump height by 9.1%, and the decrease of EMG median frequency during maximal voluntary contraction was attenuated. The reproducibility in the two VE sessions was quite good: for heart rate, oxygen uptake and reduction in jump height, correlation coefficients of values from session 1 and from session 2 were between 0.67 and 0.7. Thus, VE can be well controlled in terms of these parameters. Surprisingly, an itching erythema was found in about half of the individuals, and an increase in cutaneous blood flow. It follows that exhaustive whole-body VE elicits a mild cardiovascular exertion, and that neural as well as muscular mechanisms of fatigue may play a role.
    Publication Clinical Physiology (Oxford, England)
    Date Mar 2000
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10735981

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Edema
    • Electrocardiography
    • Electromyography
    • Energy Metabolism
    • Erythema
    • Exercise
    • Exercise Test
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Heart Rate
    • Humans
    • Laser-Doppler Flowmetry
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Osteoporosis
    • Oxygen Consumption
    • Pruritus
    • Sex Factors
    • Spindle
    • Sports
    • Torque
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Acute physiological effects of exhaustive WBV exercise in man-Ritweger.pdf
  • Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure

    Author C Bosco
    Author R Colli
    Author E Introini
    Author M Cardinale
    Author O Tsarpela
    Author A Madella
    Author J Tihanyi
    Author A Viru
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibrations (WBV) on the mechanical behaviour of human skeletal muscle. For this purpose, six female volleyball players at national level were recruited voluntarily. They were tested with maximal dynamic leg press exercise on a slide machine with extra loads of 70, 90, 110 and 130 kg. After the testing, one leg was randomly assigned to the control treatment (C) and the other to the experimental treatment (E) consisting of vibrations. The subjects were then retested at the end of the treatment using the leg press. Results showed remarkable and statistically significant enhancement of the experimental treatment in average velocity (AV), average force (AF) and average power (AP) (P < 0.05-0.005). Consequently, the velocity-force and power-force relationship shifted to the right after the treatment. In conclusion, it was affirmed that the enhancement could be caused by neural factors, as athletes were well accustomed to the leg press exercise and the learning effect was minimized.
    Publication Clinical Physiology (Oxford, England)
    Date Mar 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10200901

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Adult
    • Bicycling
    • Energy Metabolism
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • adaptiveresponses - bosco 2.pdf
  • Analysis of the interference electromyogram of human soleus muscle after exposure to vibration.

    Author M A Lebedev
    Author A V Poliakov
    Abstract The properties of m. soleus surface EMG recorded under conditions of voluntary contraction against vibrational stimulation were studied using vibration-triggered averaging and spectral estimates. The averaging procedure indicated EMG bursts locked to the vibration cycle. Narrow peaks appeared in the EMG spectrum at vibration frequency and harmonics. These effects were more pronounced in rectified EMG at low vibration frequencies (30-70 Hz) and in EMG at high frequencies (70-120 Hz). The disappearance of the peak after ischemic blockade preceded that of the tendon reflex. The peak normalized to the EMG power decreased when the force was enlarged. The peak augmented with prolonged contraction under vibration. The results are suggested to reflect alterations of the relative weight of the excitatory inflow through short spindle-motoneuron connections in the overall motoneuron inflow.
    Publication Neir̆ofiziologiia = Neurophysiology
    Date 1991
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2034299

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electromyography
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Ischemia
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscles
    • Reflex, Stretch
    • Spindle
    • Vibration
  • Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone, muscle performance, and body balance: a randomized controlled study

    Author Saila Torvinen
    Author Pekka Kannus
    Author Harri Sievänen
    Author Tero A H Järvinen
    Author Matti Pasanen
    Author Saija Kontulainen
    Author Arja Nenonen
    Author Teppo L N Järvinen
    Author Timo Paakkala
    Author Markku Järvinen
    Author Ilkka Vuori
    Abstract Recent animal studies have given evidence that vibration loading may be an efficient and safe way to improve mass and mechanical competence of bone, thus providing great potential for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trials on the safety and efficacy of the vibration on human skeleton are, however, lacking. This randomized controlled intervention trial was designed to assess the effects of an 8-month whole body vibration intervention on bone, muscular performance, and body balance in young and healthy adults. Fifty-six volunteers (21 men and 35 women; age, 19-38 years) were randomly assigned to the vibration group or control group. The vibration intervention consisted of an 8-month whole body vibration (4 min/day, 3-5 times per week). During the 4-minute vibration program, the platform oscillated in an ascending order from 25 to 45 Hz, corresponding to estimated maximum vertical accelerations from 2 g to 8 g. Mass, structure, and estimated strength of bone at the distal tibia and tibial shaft were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at baseline and at 8 months. Bone mineral content was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter, calcaneus, and distal radius using DXA at baseline and after the 8-month intervention. Serum markers of bone turnover were determined at baseline and 3, 6, and 8 months. Five performance tests (vertical jump, isometric extension strength of the lower extremities, grip strength, shuttle run, and postural sway) were performed at baseline and after the 8-month intervention. The 8-month vibration intervention succeeded well and was safe to perform but had no effect on mass, structure, or estimated strength of bone at any skeletal site. Serum markers of bone turnover did not change during the vibration intervention. However, at 8 months, a 7.8% net benefit in the vertical jump height was observed in the vibration group (95% CI, 2.8-13.1%; p = 0.003). On the other performance and balance tests, the vibration intervention had no effect. In conclusion, the studied whole body vibration program had no effect on bones of young, healthy adults, but instead, increased vertical jump height. Future human studies are needed before clinical recommendations for vibration exercise.
    Publication Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Date May 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12733727

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Bone and Bones
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Vibration
  • Effect of paraspinal muscle vibration on position sense of the lumbosacral spine

    Author S Brumagne
    Author R Lysens
    Author S Swinnen
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A two-group experimental design with repeated measures on one factor was used. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of the muscle spindles of the paraspinal muscles in lumbosacral position sense of healthy individuals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle spindles are recognized to be important mediators for position and movement sense in peripheral joints, and they are very sensitive to mechanical vibration. However, little is known about their role in the control of lumbosacral spine positioning. METHODS: Twenty-five young individuals with no low back pain were assigned at random to an experimental or control group. Proprioceptive information of the multifidus muscle spindles was distorted in half of the trials in 16 individuals by manually applying vibration (70 Hz, 0.5 mm amplitude) for approximately 5 seconds. The control group (n = 9) only heard the vibrator noise during repositioning of the lumbosacral spine. Repositioning accuracy in the sitting position was estimated by calculating the mean absolute error, constant error, and variable error among six criteria and reproduction sacral tilt angles. RESULTS: Multifidus muscle vibration induced a significant muscle lengthening illusion through which the members of the experimental group undershot the target position (F(1,15) = 30.77, P < 0.0001). The position sense scores of the control group displayed no significant differences across trials (F(1,8) = 0.56, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that precise muscle spindle input of the paraspinal muscles is essential for accurate positioning of the pelvis and lumbosacral spine in a sitting posture.
    Publication Spine
    Date Jul 1, 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404575

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electrophysiology
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lumbosacral Region
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Spindle
    • Vibration
  • Electromyographic response during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies with progressive external loads

    Author Julio Tous Fajardo
    Author Josep María Padullés Riu
    Author César Juan Muñoz
    Author Lisímaco Vallejo
    Author Gerard Moras
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze normalised EMGrms responses in the vastus medialis and lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis while standing on a platform vibrating at different frequencies (30, 35, 40 and 50 Hz) with own body weight or applying different external loads (20, 30, 40 and 50 kg).
    Website Type http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text
    URL http://www.efdeportes.com/efd93/emg.htm

    Attachments

    • Electromyographic response during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies with progressive external loads - Dialnet
    • EMG Response to WBV of Different Frequencies with Progressive External Loads.pdf
  • Electromyography activity of vastus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies

    Author Marco Cardinale
    Author Jon Lim
    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze electromyography (EMG) responses of vastus lateralis muscle to different whole-body vibration frequencies. For this purpose, 16 professional women volleyball players (age, 23.9 +/- 3.6 years; height, 182.5 +/- 11.1 cm; weight, 78.4 +/- 5.6 kg) voluntarily participated in the study. Vibration treatment was administered while standing on a vibrating platform with knees bent at 100 degrees (Nemes Bosco-system, Rome, Italy). EMG root mean square (rms) and was recorded for 60 seconds while standing on the vibrating plate in the following conditions: no vibrations and 30-, 40-, and 50-Hz vibration frequencies in random order. The position was kept for 60 seconds in each treatment condition. EMGrms was collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of the dominant leg. Statistical analysis showed that, in all vibration conditions, average EMGrms activity of vastus lateralis was higher than in the no-vibration condition. The highest EMGrms was found at 30 Hz, suggesting this frequency as the one eliciting the highest reflex response in vastus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibrations in half-squat position. An extension of these studies to a larger population appears worthwhile to further elucidate the responsiveness of the neuromuscular system to whole-body vibrations administered through vibrating platforms and to be able to develop individual treatment protocols.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Aug 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12930196

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Electromyography
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Spindle
    • Sports
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Electromyography of Vastus Lateralis Muscle During WBV of Different Frequencies - Cardinale Lim.pdf
  • Mechanical stimulation in neuromuscular diseases

    Author Dietmar Schmidtbleicher
    Author Christian Haas
    Abstract The incidence of neurodegenerative progressive diseases (Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic-Lateral-Sclerosis (ALS)) is characterized by an increasing development in the European countries. Whereas the neuropathological features and lesioned structures are different (cortical vs. spinal level) there are fundamental similarities in motor control abnormalities: ataxia, disturbed sensory function and disturbed reflex pattern. Since pharmacological treatment has been shown to be less effective we aimed at finding alternative treatment or training strategies to improve motor control in these patients. Based on the results of analyses in high performance sports we proved if whole-body-vibration (WBV) - that is strongly connected with sensory stimulation and reflex elicitation - could be an effective training device. This paper deals primarily with the results of analyses with PD patients.
    Place Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Frankfurt, Germany

    Attachments

    • Mechanical stimulation in neuromuscular diseases.pdf
  • Motor rehabilitation of spinal cord dysfunction by means of whole body vibration.

    Author John G. Gianutsos
    Author Liisa C. Oakes
    Author Vincent Siasoco
    Author Stacy Appelblatt
    Author Juliana Hamel
    Author Joan T. Gold
    Abstract To explore (1) the efficacy of whole body vibration (WBV) in inducing reflex standing and, specifically, (2) the progress of persons with spinal cord dysfunction of 3 differing etiologies.
    University NYU School of Medicine
    Place New York, NY

    Attachments

    • Motor rehabilitation of spinal cord dysfunction by means of.pdf
  • Muscle spindle activity following muscle tendon vibration in man

    Author E Ribot-Ciscar
    Author C Rossi-Durand
    Author J P Roll
    Abstract Muscle spindle primary endings originating from the Tibialis anterior, Extensor Digitorum Longus and Lateral Peroneal muscles were recorded by the microneurographic technique. Their resting activity and stretch sensitivity after muscle tendon vibration (80 Hz, 30 s) were compared with those in the previbratory period. Most of the units (73%) exhibited a decreased spontaneous firing rate whereas a few others either conserved (13.5%) or increased (13.5%) their resting discharge after vibration. A complete recovery necessitated 40 s. The static stretch sensitivity of the units was decreased during the 3 s following vibration exposure and returned to the control level (about 14 s). The results are discussed in the light of previous psychophysiological studies reporting an altered position sense and a development of involuntary muscle contractions in postvibratory periods.
    Publication Neuroscience Letters
    Date Dec 24, 1998
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885952

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Humans
    • Leg
    • Muscle Spindles
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Tendons
    • Vibration
  • Normal variability of tonic vibration reflexes in man

    Author G Eklund
    Author K E Hagbarth
    Publication Experimental Neurology
    Date Sep 1966
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5923486

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Body Temperature
    • Electromyography
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Posture
    • Reflex, Stretch
    • Vibration
  • Safety considerations in vibration training

    Author Heinz Kleinöder
    Author Jörn Ziegler
    Author Christian Bosse
    Author Joachim Mester
    Abstract Although the intensities of vibration training (i.e. frequency, amplitude and training duration) are not yet well-known, vibrations are used in many sports at different levels of performance in order to improve strength and flexibility. Therefore, as a basis for the proper use of vibration training, it is important to get safety guidelines for training comparable to ISO 2631. An important question in this context is whether there are vibratory thresholds as proposed by SPITZENPFEIL (2000). Analogue to lactate thresholds they can be explained and interpreted as an exponential increase of the EMG response and the shock transmission with increasing vibration load. Another general problem with vibrations is that they cannot be clearly restricted to the target muscles, but are transmitted to other areas of the body. Of special interest here is the vibration load on the brain, since it is generally accepted that this part of the body should be protected in order to avoid various sincere consequences (cf. GRIFFIN 1994).
    Place Institute of Training and Movement Science, German Sport University Cologne

    Attachments

    • Safety considerations in vibration training.pdf
  • The effects of whole body vibration on reflex-induced standing in persons with chronic and acute spinal cord injury.

    Abstract Study employed WBV to induce standing reflex on patients affected by spinal cord injury.
    Place Panellenic Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    Date Sep 4-7 2000

    Attachments

    • wbv and acute spinal cord injury.pdf
  • Transmissibility of 15-hertz to 35-hertz vibrations to the human hip and lumbar spine: determining the physiologic feasibility of delivering low-level anabolic mechanical stimuli to skeletal regions at greatest risk of fracture because of osteoporosis

    Author Clinton Rubin
    Author Malcolm Pope
    Author J Chris Fritton
    Author Marianne Magnusson
    Author Tommy Hansson
    Author Kenneth McLeod
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Experiments were undertaken to determine the degree to which high-frequency (15-35 Hz) ground-based, whole-body vibration are transmitted to the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae of the standing human. OBJECTIVES: To establish if extremely low-level (<1 g, where 1 g = earth&apos;s gravitational field, or 9.8 ms-2) mechanical stimuli can be efficiently delivered to the axial skeleton of a human. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Vibration is most often considered an etiologic factor in low back pain as well as several other musculoskeletal and neurovestibular complications, but recent in vivo experiments in animals indicates that extremely low-level mechanical signals delivered to bone in the frequency range of 15 to 60 Hz can be strongly anabolic. If these mechanical signals can be effectively and noninvasively transmitted in the standing human to reach those sites of the skeleton at greatest risk of osteoporosis, such as the hip and lumbar spine, then vibration could be used as a unique, nonpharmacologic intervention to prevent or reverse bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under sterile conditions and local anesthesia, transcutaneous pins were placed in the spinous process of L4 and the greater trochanter of the femur of six volunteers. Each subject stood on an oscillating platform and data were collected from accelerometers fixed to the pins while a vibration platform provided sinusoidal loading at discrete frequencies from 15 to 35 Hz, with accelerations ranging up to 1 g(peak-peak). RESULTS: With the subjects standing erect, transmissibility at the hip exceeded 100% for loading frequencies less than 20 Hz, indicating a resonance. However, at frequencies more than 25 Hz, transmissibility decreased to approximately 80% at the hip and spine. In relaxed stance, transmissibility decreased to 60%. With 20-degree knee flexion, transmissibility was reduced even further to approximately 30%. A phase-lag reached as high as 70 degrees in the hip and spine signals. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that extremely low-level, high-frequency mechanical accelerations are readily transmitted into the lower appendicular and axial skeleton of the standing individual. Considering the anabolic potential of exceedingly low-level mechanical signals in this frequency range, this study represents a key step in the development of a biomechanically based treatment for osteoporosis.
    Publication Spine
    Date Dec 1, 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14652479

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Biomechanics
    • Feasibility Studies
    • Female
    • Femur
    • Fractures, Bone
    • Hip
    • Humans
    • Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Male
    • Osteoporosis
    • Risk Factors
    • Vibration
  • Variation in neuromuscular responses during acute whole-body vibration exercise

    Author Andrew F J Abercromby
    Author William E Amonette
    Author Charles S Layne
    Author Brian K McFarlin
    Author Martha R Hinman
    Author William H Paloski
    Abstract PURPOSE: Leg muscle strength and power are increased after whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise. These effects may result from increased neuromuscular activation during WBV; however, previous studies of neuromuscular responses during WBV have not accounted for motion artifact. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults performed a series of static and dynamic unloaded squats with and without two different directions of WBV (rotational vibration, RV; and vertical vibration, VV; 30 Hz; 4 mmp-p). Activation of unilateral vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was recorded using EMG. During RV and VV, increases in EMG relative to baseline were compared over a range of knee angles, contraction types (concentric, eccentric, isometric), and squatting types (static, dynamic). RESULTS: After removing large, vibration-induced artifacts from EMG data using digital band-stop filters, neuromuscular activation of all four muscles increased significantly (P<or=0.05) during RV and VV. Average responses of the extensors were significantly greater during RV than VV, whereas responses of the tibialis anterior were significantly greater during VV than RV. For all four muscles, responses during static squatting were greater than or equal to responses during dynamic squatting, whereas responses during eccentric contractions were equal to or smaller than responses during concentric and isometric contractions. Neuromuscular responses of vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were affected by knee angle, with greatest responses at small knee angles. CONCLUSIONS: Motion artifacts should be removed from EMG data collected during WBV. We propose that neuromuscular responses during WBV may be modulated by leg muscle cocontraction as a postural control strategy and/or muscle tuning by the CNS intended to minimize soft-tissue vibration.
    Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Date Sep 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17805098

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electromyography
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle Strength
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Variation in Neuromuscular Responses- Abercromby Hinman- ACSM.pdf
  • Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training

    Author Andrew F J Abercromby
    Author William E Amonette
    Author Charles S Layne
    Author Brian K McFarlin
    Author Martha R Hinman
    Author William H Paloski
    Abstract PURPOSE: Excessive, chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) has a number of negative side effects on the human body, including disorders of the skeletal, digestive, reproductive, visual, and vestibular systems. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) is intentional exposure to WBV to increase leg muscle strength, bone mineral density, health-related quality of life, and decrease back pain. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during typical WBVT regimens. METHODS: Healthy men and women (N = 16) were recruited to perform slow, unloaded squats during WBVT (30 Hz; 4 mm(p-p)), during which knee flexion angle (KA), mechanical impedance, head acceleration (Ha(rms)), and estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) were measured. WBVT was repeated using two forms of vibration: 1) vertical forces to both feet simultaneously (VV), and 2) upward forces to only one foot at a time (RV). RESULTS: Mechanical impedance varied inversely with KA during RV (effect size, eta(p)(2): 0.668, P < 0.01) and VV (eta(p)(2): 0.533, P < 0.05). Ha(rms) varied with KA (eta(p)(2): 0.686, P < 0.01) and is greater during VV than during RV at all KA (P < 0.01). The effect of KA on Ha(rms) is different for RV and VV (eta(p)(2): 0.567, P < 0.05). The eVDV associated with typical RV and VV training regimens (30 Hz, 4 mm(p-p), 10 min.d(-1)) exceeds the recommended daily vibration exposure as defined by ISO 2631-1 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ISO standards indicate that 10 min.d(-1) WBVT is potentially harmful to the human body; the risk of adverse health effects may be lower during RV than VV and at half-squats rather than full-squats or upright stance. More research is needed to explore the long-term health hazards of WBVT.
    Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Date Oct 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17909407

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Biomechanics
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle Fatigue
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Texas
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic - Abercromby Hinman -ACSM.pdf
  • Whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training: effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance in adults with cerebral palsy

    Author Lotta Ahlborg
    Author Christina Andersson
    Author Per Julin
    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training in adults with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Fourteen persons with spastic diplegia (21-41 years) were randomized to intervention with either whole-body vibration training (n=7) or resistance training (n=7). Pre- and post-training measures of spasticity using the modified Ashworth scale, muscle strength using isokinetic dynamometry, walking ability using Six-Minute Walk Test, balance using Timed Up and Go test and gross motor performance using Gross Motor Function Measure were performed. RESULTS: Spasticity decreased in knee extensors in the whole-body vibration group. Muscle strength increased in the resistance training group at the velocity 30 degrees /s and in both groups at 90 degrees /s. Six-Minute Walk Test and Timed Up and Go test did not change significantly. Gross Motor Function Measure increased in the whole-body vibration group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that an 8-week intervention of whole-body vibration training or resistance training can increase muscle strength, without negative effect on spasticity, in adults with cerebral palsy.
    Publication Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine: Official Journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
    Date Sep 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16931460

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Cerebral Palsy
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle Spasticity
    • Postural Balance
    • Prospective Studies
    • Vibration
    • Walking
  • Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises

    Author Machteld Roelants
    Author Sabine M P Verschueren
    Author Christophe Delecluse
    Author Oron Levin
    Author Valère Stijnen
    Abstract This study analyzed leg muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Subjects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vibrating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged squat (OL). Muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius was recorded in 15 men (age 21.2 +/- 0.8 years) through use of surface electromyography (EMG). The exercises were performed in 2 conditions: with WBV and without (control [CO]) a vibratory stimulus of 35 Hz. Muscle activation during WBV was compared with CO and with muscle activation during isolated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Whole-body vibration resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) EMG root-mean-square compared with CO in all muscle groups and all exercises (between +39.9 +/- 17.5% and +360.6 +/- 57.5%). The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in OL compared with HS and LS. In conclusion, WBV resulted in an increased activation of the leg muscles. During WBV, leg muscle activity varied between 12.6 and 82.4% of MVC values.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Feb 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16503671

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electromyography
    • Humans
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • WBV and Squat (3).pdf

Pain Therapy

  • Effect of paraspinal muscle vibration on position sense of the lumbosacral spine

    Author S Brumagne
    Author R Lysens
    Author S Swinnen
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A two-group experimental design with repeated measures on one factor was used. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of the muscle spindles of the paraspinal muscles in lumbosacral position sense of healthy individuals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle spindles are recognized to be important mediators for position and movement sense in peripheral joints, and they are very sensitive to mechanical vibration. However, little is known about their role in the control of lumbosacral spine positioning. METHODS: Twenty-five young individuals with no low back pain were assigned at random to an experimental or control group. Proprioceptive information of the multifidus muscle spindles was distorted in half of the trials in 16 individuals by manually applying vibration (70 Hz, 0.5 mm amplitude) for approximately 5 seconds. The control group (n = 9) only heard the vibrator noise during repositioning of the lumbosacral spine. Repositioning accuracy in the sitting position was estimated by calculating the mean absolute error, constant error, and variable error among six criteria and reproduction sacral tilt angles. RESULTS: Multifidus muscle vibration induced a significant muscle lengthening illusion through which the members of the experimental group undershot the target position (F(1,15) = 30.77, P < 0.0001). The position sense scores of the control group displayed no significant differences across trials (F(1,8) = 0.56, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that precise muscle spindle input of the paraspinal muscles is essential for accurate positioning of the pelvis and lumbosacral spine in a sitting posture.
    Publication Spine
    Date Jul 1, 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404575

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electrophysiology
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lumbosacral Region
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Vibration
  • Treatment of chronic lower back pain with lumbar extension and whole-body vibration exercise: a randomized controlled trial

    Author Jörn Rittweger
    Author Karsten Just
    Author Katja Kautzsch
    Author Peter Reeg
    Author Dieter Felsenberg
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To compare lumbar extension exercise and whole-body vibration exercise for chronic lower back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic lower back pain involves muscular as well as connective and neural systems. Different types of physiotherapy are applied for its treatment. Industrial vibration is regarded as a risk factor. Recently, vibration exercise has been developed as a new type of physiotherapy. It is thought to activate muscles via reflexes. METHODS: In this study, 60 patients with chronic lower back pain devoid of "specific" spine diseases, who had a mean age of 51.7 years and a pain history of 13.1 years, practiced either isodynamic lumbar extension or vibration exercise for 3 months. Outcome measures were lumbar extension torque, pain sensation (visual analog scale), and pain-related disability (pain disability index). RESULTS: A significant and comparable reduction in pain sensation and pain-related disability was observed in both groups. Lumbar extension torque increased significantly in the vibration exercise group (30.1 Nm/kg), but significantly more in the lumbar extension group (+59.2 Nm/kg; SEM 10.2; P < 0.05). No correlation was found between gain in lumbar torque and pain relief or pain-related disability (P > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: The current data indicate that poor lumbar muscle force probably is not the exclusive cause of chronic lower back pain. Different types of exercise therapy tend to yield comparable results. Interestingly, well-controlled vibration may be the cure rather than the cause of lower back pain.
    Publication Spine
    Date Sep 1, 2002
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12221343

    Tags:

    • Chronic Disease
    • Depression
    • Disability Evaluation
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Follow-Up Studies
    • Humans
    • Low Back Pain
    • Male
    • Manipulation, Spinal
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Pain Measurement
    • Psychological Tests
    • Range of Motion, Articular
    • Torque
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration
    • Weight-Bearing

    Attachments

    • Lower back Pain.pdf

Sport & Exercise

  • Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes

    Author V B Issurin
    Author G Tenenbaum
    Abstract Fourteen elite and 14 amateur athletes were subjected to vibratory stimulation during bilateral biceps curl exercises of explosive strength exertion. The athletes performed two separate series of three sets of exercises in random order. The second set of one series was administered with superimposed vibration of 44 Hz and an acceleration of about 30 m x s(-2) transmitted through the two-arms handle to the arm muscles. The mechanical power of each repetition was measured by the &apos;Power Teach&apos; instrument. The maximal and mean power values for each set were automatically recorded and shown on the screen. The acute effect was evaluated as the difference between the mean and peak power output in the second (with vibratory stimulation) and first (without vibratory stimulation) sets. Similarly, the residual effect was taken to be the difference between the power values of the third (after vibratory stimulation) and the first (before vibratory stimulation) sets. The results were subjected to a repeated-measures analysis of variance with group as a between-participants factor. The results showed that exercise mode (with vs without vibratory stimulation) resulted in a significant immediate effect for mean power and for maximal power. The factor group (elite vs amateurs) resulted in a significant effect for maximal power only. The increase in explosive strength exertion attributed to vibratory stimulation was 30.1 and 29.8 W (10.4% and 10.2%) for maximal and mean power respectively in the elite group, and 20.0 and 25.9 W (7.9% and 10.7%) respectively in the amateur athletes. Vibratory stimulation resulted in an insignificant residual effect.
    Publication Journal of Sports Sciences
    Date Mar 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10362384

    Tags:

    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Spindle
    • Sports
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • issurin explosive strenght.pdf
  • Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise

    Author Jörn Rittweger
    Author Marcus Mutschelknauss
    Author Dieter Felsenberg
    Abstract The effects of hard squatting exercise with (VbX+) and without (VbX-) vibration on neuromuscular function were tested in 19 healthy young volunteers. Before and after the exercise, three different tests were performed: maximum serial jumping for 30 s, electromyography during isometric knee extension at 70% of the maximum voluntary torque, and the quantitative analysis of the patellar tendon reflex. Between VbX+ and VbX- values, there was no difference found under baseline conditions. Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter in VbX+ than in VbX- (349 +/- 338 s versus 515 +/- 338 s), but blood lactate (5.49 +/- 2.73 mmol l-1 versus 5.00 +/- 2.26 mmol l-1) and subjectively perceived exertion (rate of perceived exertion values 18.1 +/- 1.2 versus 18.6 +/- 1.6) at the termination of exercise indicate comparable levels of fatigue. After the exercise, comparable effects were observed on jump height, ground contact time, and isometric torque. The vastus lateralis mean frequency during isometric torque, however, was higher after VbX+ than after VbX-. Likewise, the tendon reflex amplitude was significantly greater after VbX+ than after VbX- (4.34 +/- 3.63 Nm versus 1.68 +/- 1.32 Nm). It is followed that in exercise unto comparable degrees of exhaustion and muscular fatigue, superimposed 26 Hz vibration appears to elicit an alteration in neuromuscular recruitment patterns, which apparently enhance neuromuscular excitability. Possibly, this effect may be exploited for the design of future training regimes.
    Publication Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
    Date Mar 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12641601

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Knee Joint
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Motor Activity
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Patella
    • Physical Endurance
    • Reflex, Stretch
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Acute effects of various whole-body vibration frequencies on lower-body power in trained and untrained subjects

    Author Bent R Rønnestad
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) with different vibration frequencies on power production during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) with submaximal external loads in strength trained and untrained subjects. Subjects were randomly exposed to WBV with frequencies of 20, 35, or 50 Hz (amplitude: 3 mm), or no vibration. Peak average power during SJ and CMJ was assessed on a Smith machine while standing on a vibration platform. Both the trained and untrained group increased peak average power during SJ at an WBV frequency of 50 Hz (6.8 +/- 1.9 and 7.3 +/- 1.7%, respectively; p < 0.05). This increase was larger than in the other test conditions, in which no changes occurred (p < 0.05). Untrained subjects increased peak average power during CMJ with 4.4 +/- 1.3% (p < 0.05) while vibrating at a frequency of 50 Hz, but there was no difference for the strength trained subjects. Furthermore, there was no difference in peak average power in CMJ and SJ while vibrating at frequencies of 20 and 35 Hz compared with no vibration in either of the groups. In conclusion, WBV with a frequency of 50 Hz increases peak average power in both trained and untrained subjects, whereas vibration frequencies of 20 and 35 Hz do not have this effect. Thus, if the purpose of using WBV is to increase the stimulus to the neuromuscular system to a greater extent than traditional explosive strength/power training, the WBV frequency should be 50 Hz and the exercises should be explosive and submaximally loaded (like traditional explosive strength/power training).
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Jul 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568035

    Attachments

    • Acute_Effects_of_Various_Whole_Body_Vibration.37.pdf
    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power

    Author Prue Cormie
    Author Russell S Deane
    Author N Travis Triplett
    Author Jeffrey M McBride
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration on isometric squat (IS) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Nine moderately resistance-trained men were tested for peak force (PF) during the IS and jump height (JH) and peak power (PP) during the CMJ. Average integrated electromyography (IEMG) was measured from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles. Subjects performed the 2 treatment conditions, vibration or sham, in a randomized order. Subjects were tested for baseline performance variables in both the IS and CMJ, and were exposed to either a 30-second bout of whole-body vibration or sham intervention. Subjects were tested immediately following the vibration or sham treatment, as well as 5, 15, and 30 minutes posttreatment. Whole-body vibration resulted in a significantly higher (p < or = 0.05) JH during the CMJ immediately following vibration, as compared with the sham condition. No significant differences were observed in CMJ PP; PF during IS or IEMG of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, or biceps femoris during the CMJ; or IS between vibration and sham treatments. Whole-body vibration may be a potential warm-up procedure for increasing vertical JH. Future research is warranted addressing the influence of various protocols of whole-body vibration (i.e., duration, amplitude, frequency) on athletic performance.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date May 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16686550

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electromyography
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Muscle activity-Cormie, Dean et al-Uni NC-JSCR 2006.pdf
  • Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration

    Author Patrick L Jacobs
    Author Patricia Burns
    Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscular strength, flexibility, and heart rate (HR). Twenty adults (10 men, 10 women) untrained to WBV participated in the study. All subjects completed assessment of lower-extremity isokinetic torque, flexibility, and HR immediately before and after 6 minutes of WBV and 6 minutes of leg cycling ergometry (CYL), in randomized order. During WBV, subjects stood upright on a vibration platform for a total of 6 minutes. Vibration frequency was gradually increased during the first minute to a frequency of 26 Hz, which was maintained for the remaining 5 minutes. During CYL, power output was gradually increased to 50 W during the first minute and maintained at that power output for the remaining 5 minutes. Lower-extremity flexibility was determined using the sit-and-reach box test. Peak and average isokinetic torque of knee extension and flexion were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer with velocity fixed at 120 degrees .s. Change scores for the outcome measures were compared between treatments using Student&apos;s paired t-tests. Analysis revealed significantly greater HR acceleration with CYL (24.7 bpm) than after WBV (15.8 bpm). The increase of sit-and-reach scores after WBV (4.7 cm) was statistically greater (p < 0.05) than after CYL (0.8 cm). After WBV, increases in peak and average isokinetic torque of knee extension, 7.7% and 9.6%, were statistically greater than after CYL (p < 0.05). Average torque of knee flexion also increased more with WBV (+7.8%) than with CYL (-1.5%) (p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that short-term WBV standing elicits acute enhancements of lower-extremity muscular torque and flexibility, suggesting the application of this technology as a preparatory activity before more intense exercise.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Jan 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18824930

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Ergometry
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Knee Joint
    • Lower Extremity
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle Strength
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Probability
    • Range of Motion, Articular
    • Sensitivity and Specificity
    • Time Factors
    • Torque
    • Vibration
    • Young Adult

    Attachments

    • Acute Enhancement of Lower-Extremity Dynamic Strength and Flexibility with Whole-Body Vibration.pdf
  • Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players

    Author D Cochrane
    Author S Stannard
    Abstract Objective: To quantify the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on arm countermovement vertical jump (ACMVJ), grip strength, and flexibility performance. Methods: Eighteen female elite field hockey players each completed three interventions of WBV, control, and cycling in a balanced random manner. WBV was performed on a Galileo machine (26 Hz) with six different exercises being performed. For the control, the same six exercises were performed at 0 Hz, whilst cycling was performed at 50 W. Each intervention was 5 min in duration with ACMVJ, grip strength, and flexibility measurements being conducted pre and post intervention. Results: There was a positive interaction effect (interventionxpre-post) of enhanced ACMVJ (p<0.001) and flexibility (p<0.05) parameters following WBV; however no changes were observed after the control and cycling interventions. There was no interaction effect for grip strength following the three interventions. Conclusions: Acute WBV causes neural potentiation of the stretch reflex loop as shown by the improved ACMVJ and flexibility performance. Additionally, muscle groups less proportionally exposed to vibration do not exhibit physiological changes that potentiate muscular performance.
    Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine
    Date 2005-11

    Attachments

    • PubMed Central Full Text PDF
    • PubMed Central Link
  • ASPETTI NEUROFISIOLOGICI ED APPLICATIVI DELL’ALLENAMENTO VIBRATORIO

    Author Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Abstract General introduction to WBV for sport (in Italian).
    Date 8/4/2005

    Attachments

    • Articolo bisciotti pedana.pdf
  • Biological reaction to vibration--implications for sport

    Author J Mester
    Author P Spitzenfeil
    Author J Schwarzer
    Author F Seifriz
    Abstract In many situations of everyday life, vibration load occurs. Here whole body vibration in vehicles, such as boats, cars, helicopters and others as well as hand-transmitted vibration (motor saws etc.) can be named. As vibration is assumed liable to cause various threats to human health, a great number of studies in work science focussed on dose-effect relations and concepts for prevention. Although in many sports remarkable vibration load also occurs, there is very little research on the potential dangers and benefits of vibration stimuli, e.g. on whole body vibration and the implications for muscular activity and neuromuscular control in sport. In personal studies the damping behaviour and training effects under whole body vibration were investigated. Various research areas have been studied in order to approach the relevant topics: neuromuscular and posture control, energy metabolism in terms of oxygen uptake under whole body vibration and local concentration of phosphates by means of 31P-MRS. Furthermore the effects of a strength training under whole body vibration were analysed. The results underline that vibration is a neglected research topic in sport science from the preventive point of view as well as from the one focussing on the improvement of sport performance.
    Publication Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia
    Date Oct 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668759

    Tags:

    • Energy Metabolism
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Oxygen Consumption
    • Sports
    • Vibration
  • Catch the vibe

    Author Neil Wolkodoff
    Publication Avid Golfer
    Date Spring 2007

    Attachments

    • article-49.pdf
  • Comparing the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men

    Author Bent R Rønnestad
    Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to compare the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. The subjects were 14 recreationally resistance-trained men (age, 21-40 years) and the intervention period consisted of 5 weeks. After the initial testing, subjects were randomly assigned to either the "squat whole body vibration" (SWBV) group (n = 7), which performed squats on a vibration platform on a Smith Machine, or the "squat"(S) group (n = 7), which performed conventional squats with no vibrations on a Smith Machine. Testing was performed at the beginning and the end of the study and consisted of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in squat and maximum jump height in countermovement jump (CMJ). A modified daily undulating periodization program was used during the intervention period in both groups. Both groups trained at the same percentage of 1RM in squats (6-10RM). After the intervention, CMJ performance increased significantly only in the SWBV (p < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between groups in relative jump height increase (p = 0.088). Both groups showed significant increases in 1RM performance in squats (p < 0.01). Although there was a trend toward a greater relative strength increase in the SWBV group, it did not reach a significant level. In conclusion, the preliminary results of this study point toward a tendency of superiority of squats performed on a vibration platform compared with squats without vibrations regarding maximal strength and explosive power as long as the external load is similar in recreationally resistance-trained men.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Nov 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574092

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Adult
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Thigh
    • Vibration
    • Weight Lifting
  • Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance

    Author Saila Torvinen
    Author Pekka Kannus
    Author Harri Sievänen
    Author Tero A H Järvinen
    Author Matti Pasanen
    Author Saija Kontulainen
    Author Teppo L N Järvinen
    Author Markku Järvinen
    Author Pekka Oja
    Author Ilkka Vuori
    Abstract PURPOSE: This randomized controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of a 4-month whole body vibration-intervention on muscle performance and body balance in young, healthy, nonathletic adults. METHODS: Fifty-six volunteers (21 men and 35 women, aged 19-38 yr) were randomized to either the vibration group or control group. The vibration-intervention consisted of a 4-month whole body vibration training (4 min.d(-1), 3-5 times a week) employed by standing on a vertically vibrating platform. Five performance tests (vertical jump, isometric extension strength of the lower extremities, grip strength, shuttle run, and postural sway on a stability platform) were performed initially and at 2 and 4 months. RESULTS: Four-month vibration intervention induced an 8.5% (95% CI, 3.7-13.5%, P=0.001) net improvement in the jump height. Lower-limb extension strength increased after the 2-month vibration-intervention resulting in a 3.7% (95% CI, 0.3-7.2%, P=0.034) net benefit for the vibration. This benefit, however, diminished by the end of the 4-month intervention. In the grip strength, shuttle run, or balance tests, the vibration-intervention showed no effect. CONCLUSION: The 4-month whole body vibration-intervention enhanced jumping power in young adults, suggesting neuromuscular adaptation to the vibration stimulus. On the other hand, the vibration-intervention showed no effect on dynamic or static balance of the subjects. Future studies should focus on comparing the performance-enhancing effects of a whole body vibration to those of conventional resistance training and, as a broader objective, on investigating the possible effects of vibration on structure and strength of bones, and perhaps, incidence of falls of elderly people.
    Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Date Sep 2002
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12218749

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Male
    • Motor Activity
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Postural Balance
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance.pdf
  • Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions

    Author Jeffrey M McBride
    Author John P Porcari
    Author Mark D Scheunke
    Abstract This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p < or 0.05) and a significant increase in mEMG at T2 during the MVC. V had an overall trend of lower mEMG in comparison to NV. The mEMG and MPF values associated with NV were similar to previously reported investigations. The lower mEMG values and the higher MPF of V in comparison to NV are undocumented. The EMG patterns observed with vibration may indicate a more efficient and effective recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Nov 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574082

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Arm
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Male
    • Muscle Fatigue
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Vibration
  • Effect of vibration training in maximal effort (70% 1RM) dynamic bicep curls

    Author Kieran Moran
    Author Brian McNamara
    Author Jin Luo
    Abstract PURPOSE: To examine (i) the acute effect of direct vibration on neuromuscular performance with a maximal-effort dynamic resistance exercise and (ii) the acute residual effect of direct vibration training both with and without the resistance exercise. METHODS: Fourteen subjects were exposed to four training conditions in random order: exercise with vibration (E + V); exercise with sham vibration (E + SV); no exercise with vibration (NE + V); and no exercise with sham vibration (NE + SV). The exercise comprised three sets of maximal-effort bicep curls with a load of 70% 1RM. A portable vibrator was strapped onto the skin over the bicep tendon to apply vibration with an amplitude and frequency of 1.2 mm and 65 Hz. Elbow joint angle and bicep EMG were measured both during training and in pre- and posttraining tests. Angular velocity, moment, power, and bicep root mean squared value of EMG (EMG(rms)) and mean power frequency of EMG (EMG(mpf)) were determined for the concentric phase. Interday reliability ranged from 0.69 to 0.99. RESULTS: During training (acute effect) vibration did not enhance mean angular velocity (1.5 vs 1.5 rad.s(-1), P = 0.86), peak angular velocity (2.7 vs 2.7 rad.s(-1), P = 0.90), mean moment (27.3 vs 27.4 N.m, P = 0.83), peak moment (39.8 vs 39.4 N.m, P = 0.53), mean power (40.3 vs 41.1 W, P = 0.72), peak power (91.9 vs 90.2 W, P = 0.77), or bicep EMG(rms) (73.9 vs 71.9, P = 0.78). Similarly, after training (acute residual effect) there was no enhancement from vibration in the mechanical and EMG output when the muscle was trained or was rested (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that direct vibration, with an amplitude of 1.2 mm and frequency of 65 Hz, applied to the bicep muscle tendon, does not enhance neuromuscular performance in maximal-effort contractions during or immediately after training.
    Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Date Mar 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17473779

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Arm
    • Biomechanics
    • Electromyography
    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Musculoskeletal Manipulations
    • Physical Endurance
    • Physical Exertion
    • Prospective Studies
    • Time Factors
    • Torque
    • Vibration
    • Weight Lifting

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility

    Author V B Issurin
    Author D G Liebermann
    Author G Tenenbaum
    Abstract In this study, we investigated a new method of training for maximal strength and flexibility, which included exertion with superimposed vibration (vibratory stimulation, VS) on target muscles. Twenty-eight male athletes were divided into three groups, and trained three times a week for 3 weeks in one of the following conditions: (A) conventional exercises for strength of the arms and VS stretching exercises for the legs; (B) VS strength exercises for the arms and conventional stretching exercises for the legs; (C) irrelevant training (control group). The vibration was applied at 44 Hz while its amplitude was 3 mm. The effect of training was evaluated by means of isotonic maximal force, heel-to-heel length in the two-leg split across, and flex-and-reach test for body flexion. The VS strength training yielded an average increase in isotonic maximal strength of 49.8%, compared with an average gain of 16% with conventional training, while no gain was observed for the control group. The VS flexibility training resulted in an average gain in the legs split of 14.5 cm compared with 4.1 cm for the conventional training and 2 cm for the control groups, respectively. The ANOVA revealed significant pre-post training effects and an interaction between pre-post training and &apos;treatment&apos; effects (P < 0.001) for the isotonic maximal force and both flexibility tests. It was concluded that superimposed vibrations applied for short periods allow for increased gains in maximal strength and flexibility.
    Publication Journal of Sports Sciences
    Date Dec 1994
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7853452

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • effect of wbv on maximal force.pdf
  • Effect of whole body vibration training on lower limb performance in selected high-level ballet students

    Author Giuseppe Annino
    Author Elvira Padua
    Author Carlo Castagna
    Author Valter Di Salvo
    Author Stefano Minichella
    Author Olga Tsarpela
    Author Vincenzo Manzi
    Author Stefano D&apos;Ottavio
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training on vertical jump ability (CMJ) and knee-extensor performance at selected external loads (50, 70, and 100 kg; leg-press exercise) in elite ballerinas. Twenty-two (age, 21.25 +/- 1.5 years) full-time ballerinas were assigned randomly to the experimental (E, n = 11) and control (C, n = 11) groups. The experimental group was submitted to WBV training 3 times per week before ballet practice. During the training period, the E and C groups undertook the same amount of ballet practice. Posttraining CMJ performance significantly increased in E group (6.3 +/- 3.8%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, E group showed significant (p < 0.05-0.001) posttraining average leg-press power and velocity improvements at all the external loads considered. Consequently, the force-velocity and power-velocity relationship shifted to the right after WBV training in the E group. The results of the present study show that WBV training is an effective short-term training methodology for inducing improvements in knee-extensor explosiveness in elite ballerinas.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Nov 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18076222

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Athletic Performance
    • Dancing
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lower Extremity
    • Muscle Strength
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Treatment Outcome
    • Vibration
    • Weight Lifting

    Attachments

    • EFFECT OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON LOWER LIMB PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED HIGH-LEVEL BALLET STUDENTS.pdf
    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females

    Author M Roelants
    Author C Delecluse
    Author M Goris
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of 24 weeks "whole body vibration" training and fitness training on body composition and on muscle strength. Forty-eight untrained females (21.3 +/- 2.0 yr) participated in the study. The whole body vibration group (N = 18) performed unloaded static and dynamic exercises on a vibration platform (35 - 40 Hz, 2.5 - 5.0 mm; Power Plate). The fitness group (N = 18) followed a standard cardiovascular (15 - 40 min) and resistance training program including dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises (20 - 8 RM). Both groups trained 3 times weekly. The control group (N = 12) did not participate in any training. Body composition was determined by means of underwater weighing. Additionally 12 skinfolds were assessed. Isometric (0 degrees /s) and isokinetic (50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s, 150 degrees /s) knee-extensor strength was measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Technogym). Over 24 weeks there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in weight, in percentage body fat, nor in skinfold thickness in any of the groups. Fat free mass increased significantly in the whole body vibration group (+ 2.2 %) only. A significant strength gain was recorded in the whole body vibration group (24.4 +/- 5.1 %; 5.9 +/- 2.1 %; 8.3 +/- 4.4 %; 7.6 +/- 1.5 %) and in the fitness group (16.5 +/- 1.7 %; 12.0 +/- 2.7 %; 10.4 +/- 2.3 %; 10.2 +/- 1.9 %), at 0 degrees /s, 50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s and 150 degrees /s respectively. In conclusion, 24 weeks whole body vibration training did not reduce weight, total body fat or subcutaneous fat in previously untrained females. However, whole body vibration training induces a gain in knee-extensor strength combined with a small increase in fat free mass. The gain in strength is comparable to the strength increase following a standard fitness training program consisting of cardiovascular and resistance training.
    Publication International Journal of Sports Medicine
    Date Jan 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750005

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Body Composition
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Knee Joint
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Endurance
    • Time Factors
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Effects of 6 weeks of periodized squat training with or without whole-body vibration on short-term adaptations in jump performance within recreationally resistance trained men

    Author Hugh S Lamont
    Author Joel T Cramer
    Author Debra A Bemben
    Author Randa L Shehab
    Author Mark A Anderson
    Author Michael G Bemben
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week, periodized squat training program, with or without whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV), on jump performance. Males ranged in age from 20 to 30 years and were randomized into groups that did squat training with (SQTV, n = 13) or without (SQT, n = 11) vibration, or a control group (CG, n = 6). Measures of jump height (cm), peak power (Pmax), Pmax per kilogram of body mass (Pmax/kg), and mean power were recorded during 30-cm depth jumps and 20-kg squat jumps at weeks 1 (pretraining), 3 (midtraining), and 7 (posttraining). No significant group differences were seen for 30-cm depth jump height between weeks 1 and 7 (p > 0.05). Trial three (W7) measures were greater than those for trial two (W3) and trial one (W1) (p < 0.05). Significant group differences were seen for 20-kg squat jump height, with SQTV > SQT between weeks 1 and 7 (p < 0.05). Significant trial differences were seen, with W7 > W3 > W1 (p < 0.05) as well as for 30-cm depth jump Pmax percent change (W7 > W3 and W1 p < 0.05)). A significant trial effect was seen for 20-kg squat jump Pmax (W7 > W1, p < 0.05) and 20-kg squat jump Pmax/kg percent change (W7 > W3 > W1, p < 0.05). The addition of vibration to SQTV seemed to facilitate Pmax and mean power adaptation for depth jumps and Pmax for squat jumps, although not significantly (p > 0.05). Stretch reflex potentiation and increased motor unit synchronization and firing rates may account for the trends seen. Baseline squat strength, resistance training experience, and amplitude, frequency, and duration of application of WBLFV seem to be important factors that need to be controlled for.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Nov 2008
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18978620

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Athletic Performance
    • Humans
    • Leg
    • Male
    • Muscle Fatigue
    • Periodicity
    • Refractory Period, Electrophysiological
    • Resistance Training
    • Vibration
    • Weight-Bearing

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Effects of acute upper-body vibration on strength and power variables in climbers

    Author Darryl J Cochrane
    Author Emma J Hawke
    Abstract Whole-body vibration training has recently received a lot of attention with reported enhancements of strength and power qualities in athletes. This study investigated whether upper-body vibration would be able to augment muscular attributes for climbing performance. Twelve healthy active climbers volunteered for the study. All participants underwent 3 treatments--arm cranking (AC), upper-body vibration (UBV), and non-UBV (NUBV)--in a balanced random order, conducted on separate days. Upper-body vibration was generated via a commercialized electric-powered dumbbell with a rotating axis that delivered oscillatory movements to the shoulders and arms. The UBV treatment consisted of performing 5 upper-body exercises for a total duration of 5 minutes. The UBV frequency was set at 26 Hz, amplitude 3 mm. For the NUBV treatment, the participants performed the exact exercises and time constraints as UBV; however, the vibration dumbbell was set at 0 Hz and 0 mm amplitude. The third treatment consisted of AC, which was performed at 75 k.min(-1) for 5 minutes. Pre- and postmuscular performance measures of medicine ball throw, hand grip strength, and a specific climbing maneuver were performed after each treatment. There were no significant treatment differences on medicine ball throw, hand grip strength, and the specific climbing maneuver. Acute UBV exposure did not demonstrate the expected potential neuromuscular enhancements on the climbing performance tests selected for this study.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date May 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17530943

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Arm
    • Female
    • Hand Strength
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Mountaineering
    • Muscle Strength
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Upper Body Vibration with Galileo Dumbbell.pdf
  • Effects of vibration training on muscle strength: a meta-analysis

    Author Pedro J Marín
    Author Matthew R Rhea
    Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to attempt to gain a clear picture of the magnitude of strength improvements expected after acute and chronic vibration training and to identify specific factors that influence the treatment effects. Studies employing a strength training intervention and containing data necessary to calculate effect size (ES) were included in the analysis. A total of 31 studies met the inclusion criterion. Analysis of ES demonstrated that the type of vibration platform employed is a moderator of the treatment effect of vibration on strength development. Differences were noted in both acute and chronic changes in muscle strength when vertical vibration platforms are compared with oscillating platforms. Vertical platforms elicit a significantly larger treatment effect for chronic adaptations (ES = 1.24) compared with oscillating platforms (ES = -0.13). However, oscillating platforms elicit a greater treatment effect for acute effects (ES = 0.24) compared with vertical platforms (ES = -0.07). The data also show that gender, training status, and exercise protocol are moderators of the response to vibration exercise for strength development (vertical platforms). Based on the overall analysis, it is apparent that vibration exercise can be effective at eliciting chronic muscle strength adaptations. The vibration exercise can be used by exercise professionals to enhance muscular strength.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Feb 2010
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20072044
  • Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes

    Author C Delecluse
    Author M Roelants
    Author R Diels
    Author E Koninckx
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.
    Publication International Journal of Sports Medicine
    Date Oct 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16158372

    Tags:

    • Adaptation, Physiological
    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Knee Joint
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Running
    • Vibration
  • Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest

    Author J Rittweger
    Author D Belavy
    Author P Hunek
    Author U Gast
    Author H Boerst
    Author B Feilcke
    Author G Armbrecht
    Author E Mulder
    Author H Schubert
    Author C Richardson
    Author A de Haan
    Author D F Stegeman
    Author H Schiessl
    Author D Felsenberg
    Abstract Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed-rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to evaluate its feasibility and efficacy during 56 days of bed-rest. Twenty healthy male volunteers aged 24 to 43 years were recruited and, after medical check-ups, randomised to a non-exercising control (Ctrl) group or a group that performed RVE 11 times per week. Strict bed-rest was controlled by video surveillance. The diet was controlled. RVE was performed in supine position, with a static force component of about twice the body weight and a smaller dynamic force component. RVE comprised four different units (squats, heel raises, toe raises, kicks), each of which lasted 60 - 100 seconds. Pre and post exercise levels of lactate were measured once weekly. Body weight was measured daily on a bed scale. Pain questionnaires were obtained in regular intervals during and after the bed-rest. Vibration frequency was set to 19 Hz at the beginning and progressed to 25.9 Hz (SD 1.9) at the end of the study, suggesting that the dynamic force component increased by 90 %. The maximum sustainable exercise time for squat exercise increased from 86 s (SD 21) on day 11 of the BR to 176 s (SD 73) on day 53 (p = 0.006). On the same days, post-exercise lactate levels increased from 6.9 mmol/l (SD2.3) to 9.2 mmol/l (SD 3.5, p = 0.01). On average, body weight was unchanged in both groups during bed-rest, but single individuals in both groups depicted significant weight changes ranging from - 10 % to + 10 % (p < 0.001). Lower limb pain was more frequent during bed-rest in the RVE subjects than in Ctrl (p = 0.035). During early recovery, subjects of both groups suffered from muscle pain to a comparable extent, but foot pain was more common in Ctrl than in RVE (p = 0.013 for plantar pain, p = 0.074 for dorsal foot pain). Our results indicate that RVE is feasible twice daily during bed-rest in young healthy males, provided that one afternoon and one entire day per week are free. Exercise progression, mainly by progression of vibration frequency, yielded increases in maximum sustainable exercise time and blood lactate. In conclusion, RVE as performed in this study, appears to be safe.
    Publication International Journal of Sports Medicine
    Date Jul 2006
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16802251

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Bed Rest
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Humans
    • Lactates
    • Logistic Models
    • Male
    • Muscular Atrophy
    • Pain Measurement
    • Supine Position
    • Vibration
  • Inconsistent use of terminology in whole body vibration exercise research

    Author Christian Lorenzen
    Author Wayne Maschette
    Author Michael Koh
    Author Cameron Wilson
    Abstract Whole body vibration exercise (WBV) intensity can be manipulated by altering the frequency of oscillations and/or its magnitude. The inconsistencies and inaccuracies reported within the literature that at times challenge the replication and advancement of whole body vibration exercise research are discussed. Although frequency is regularly reported, inconsistency exists with the definition of vibration amplitude which has been interchangeably used with other terminology by some researchers. Of primary concern is the risk of injury to participants in future research. Researchers using intensities that were incorrectly reported by previous studies may unwittingly expose participants to harmful intensities. For clarity, an argument is put forward for the standardisation of terminology and reporting of whole body exercise parameters.
    Publication Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia
    Date Nov 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18762453

    Tags:

    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Terminology as Topic
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Inconsistent use of terminology in whole body vibration exercise research.pdf
  • Influence of brief daily tendon vibration on rat soleus muscle in non-weight-bearing situation

    Author Maurice Falempin
    Author Soumeya Fodili In-Albon
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tendon vibration could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during hindlimb unloading (HU). Mechanical vibrations with a constant low amplitude (0.3 mm) were applied (192 s/day) with constant frequency (120 Hz) to the Achilles tendon of the unloaded muscle during the 14-day HU period. Significant reductions in muscle mass ([-]41%), fiber size, maximal twitch ([-]54%), and tetanic tensions ([-]73%) as well as changes in fiber type and electrophoretic profiles and twitch-time parameters ([-]31% in the contraction time and [-]30% in the half relaxation time) were found after 14 days of HU when compared with the control soleus. Tendon vibration applied during HU significantly attenuated, but did not prevent, 1) the loss of muscle mass (17 vs. 41%); 2) the decrease in the fiber cross-sectional area of type IIA ([-]28 vs. [-]50%) and type IIC ([-]29 vs. [-]56%) fibers; and 3) the decrease in maximal twitch ([-]3 vs. [-]54%) and maximal tetanic tensions ([-]29 vs. [-]73%) and the half relaxation time (1 vs. [-]30%). Changes in the contraction time and in histological and electrophoretical parameters associated with HU were not counteracted. These findings suggest that tendon vibration can be used as a paradigm to counteract the atrophic process observed after HU.
    Publication J Appl Physiol
    Date July 1, 1999
    URL http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/87/1/3

    Tags:

    • Spindle

    Attachments

    • HighWire Full Text PDF
    • HighWire Snapshot
    • influence of vibration on rat soleus muscle.pdf
  • Influence of resistance load on neuromuscular response to vibration training

    Author Jin Luo
    Author Michael Clarke
    Author Brian McNamara
    Author Kieran Moran
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of resistance load on the acute and acute residual effects of vibration training, with vibration applied directly to the bicep tendon in a maximal-effort dynamic resistance exercise (3 sets of maximal-effort bicep curls). Eleven participants were exposed to 4 training conditions in random order: exercise with 1 of 2 different loads (40% 1-repetition maximum [RM] or 70% 1RM load) combined with 1 of 2 vibration conditions (vibration [1.2 mm, 65 Hz] or sham vibration). Five minutes before and after the exercise, a set of maximal-effort bicep curls with a load of either 40 or 70% 1RM was performed as the pre- and posttraining test. Concentric elbow joint angular velocity, moment and power, and bicep root mean square electromyography (EMGrms) were measured during training and in the pre- and posttraining tests. The results show that during training (acute effect) and at 5 minutes after training (acute residual effect), vibration did not induce a significant change in EMGrms, mean and peak angular velocities, moment and power, time to peak power, and initial power at 100 milliseconds after the start of the concentric phase for either resistance load. Therefore, in aiming to train neuromuscular output using maximal-effort dynamic contractions (40 and 70% 1RM), there is no benefit in employing direct vibration, at least with a 1.2-mm amplitude and 65-Hz frequency. However, the amplitude of 1.2 mm may be too high to effectively stimulate neuromuscular output in maximal-effort dynamic contractions per se.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Mar 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197206

    Attachments

    • Influence of Resistance Load on Neuromuscular Response to Vibration Training.pdf
    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Influence of vibration on delayed onset of muscle soreness following eccentric exercise

    Author Amir H Bakhtiary
    Author Ziaeddin Safavi-Farokhi
    Author Atefeh Aminian-Far
    Abstract Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which may occur after eccentric exercise, may cause some reduction in ability in sport activities. For this reason, several studies have been designed on preventing and controlling DOMS. As vibration training (VT) may improve muscle performance, we designed this study to investigate the effect of VT on controlling and preventing DOMS after eccentric exercise. METHODS: Fifty healthy non-athletic volunteers were assigned randomly into two experimental, VT (n = 25) and non-VT (n = 25) groups. A vibrator was used to apply 50 Hz vibration on the left and right quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles for 1 min in the VT group, while no vibration was applied in the non-VT group. Then, both groups walked downhill on a 10 degrees declined treadmill at a speed of 4 km/hour. The measurements included the isometric maximum voluntary contraction force (IMVC) of left and right quadriceps muscles, pressure pain threshold (PPT) 5, 10 and 15 cm above the patella and mid-line of the calf muscles of both lower limbs before and the day after treadmill walking. After 24 hours, the serum levels of creatine-kinase (CK), and DOMS level by visual analogue scale were measured. RESULTS: The results showed decreased IMVC force (P = 0.006), reduced PPT (P = 0.0001) and significantly increased mean of DOMS and CK levels in the non-VT group, compared to the VT group (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: A comparison by experimental groups indicates that VT before eccentric exercise may prevent and control DOMS. Further studies should be undertaken to ascertain the stability and effectiveness of VT in athletics.
    Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine
    Date Mar 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138635

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Athletic Injuries
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Pain
    • Pain Measurement
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Time Factors
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Influence of vibration training on energy expenditure in active men

    Author Marzo E Da Silva
    Author Juan M Fernandez
    Author Eduardo Castillo
    Author Victor M Nuñez
    Author Diana M Vaamonde
    Author Maria S Poblador
    Author Jose L Lancho
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of whole-body vibration on energy expenditure, as well as on exercise intensity, during and immediately after a typical set of exercises for muscle hypertrophy in physically active subjects. Seventeen male university students (mean age 18.3 +/- 0.24 years) volunteered to perform 2 different training exercises: half squat (HS), and half squat with vibration (HSV). Both exercises were performed by all subjects on the vibration platform (with vibration only for HSV), the sequence order being assigned randomly. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio, perceived exertion (PE), and heart rate were recorded for baseline, exercise, and short-recovery conditions. Training consisted of 5 sets of 10 repetitions of HS and HSV, with a 2-minute recovery interval between sets. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements and Bonferroni correction, as well as effect size were used for statistical calculations. Results indicated that EE and PE were significantly higher in the HSV group, during both exercise and recovery. Heart rate did not differ significantly between groups. Thus, it would appear that HS strength training could be rendered more energy-efficient through the addition of vibration. Moreover, it would be feasible to introduce vibration exercises into regular training programs, particularly those whose key objective is muscle hypertrophy along with fat reduction.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date May 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17530948

    Tags:

    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Energy Metabolism
    • Heart Rate
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Physical Exertion
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Influence of WBV on Energy Expenditure - Da Silva, Fernandez et al. - Uni.Cordoba - JSCR May07.pdf
  • Influence of whole body vibration platform frequency on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults

    Author Trentham P Furness
    Author Wayne E Maschette
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to progressively overload vibration platform frequency to describe sea-saw whole body vibration influence on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling older adults (aged 72 +/- 8 years) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (zero, one, 2, and 3 whole body vibration sessions per week). Quantifiers of neuromuscular performance such as the 5-Chair Stands test, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Tinetti test were recorded. Furthermore, Health-related quality of life was qualified with the SF-36 Health Survey. A 6-week whole body vibration intervention significantly improved the quantifiers of neuromuscular performance in a community-dwelling older adult sample. Whole body vibration was shown to significantly reduce time taken to complete the 5-Chair Stands test (p < 0.05) and the TUG test (p < 0.05). Tinetti test scores significantly improved (p < 0.05). as did all components of health-related quality of life (p < 0.05). Overall, progressively overloaded frequency elicited more beneficial improvement for the 3 whole body vibration sessions per week group. It was concluded that progressively overloaded frequency was effective in improving quantifiable measures of neuromuscular performance in the sample and that practitioners may confidently prescribe 3 whole body vibration sessions per week with more precise knowledge of the effects of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and health-related quality-of-life effects.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Aug 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620913

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • NEW TRENDS IN TRAINING SCIENCE: THE USE OF VIBRATIONS FOR ENHANCING PERFORMANCE

    Author Carmelo Bosco
    Author Marco Cardinale
    Author Elio Locatelli
    Author Olga Tsarpela
    Abstract The adaptive responses of the human body to training stimuli have been investigated in depth over the past few years. Thanks to the research carried out in different parts of the world, we know that the adaptation to the training stimulus is related to the modification induced by the repetition of daily exercises, which are specific to the movements executed (Edington and Edgerton, 1976). These adaptations are related to the fact that human skeletal muscle is a specialised tissue, which modifies its overall functional capacity in response to regular exercise with high loads (McDonagh and Davies, 1984).
    Date 4-1999

    Tags:

    • Spindle

    Attachments

    • THE USE OF VIBRATIONS FOR ENHANCING PERFORMANCE - Bosco new trend.pdf
  • Optimal frequency, displacement, duration, and recovery patterns to maximize power output following acute whole-body vibration

    Author Jessica B Adams
    Author David Edwards
    Author Daniel Serviette
    Author Abby M Bedient
    Author Emy Huntsman
    Author Kevin A Jacobs
    Author Gianluca Del Rossi
    Author Bernard A Roos
    Author Joseph F Signorile
    Abstract Power is an important component of general health, fitness, and athletic performance. Traditional overload techniques require considerable time, intensity, and volume of training. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a potentially less time-consuming method for increasing power performance than traditional training. However, the exact protocols that can maximize power output have not yet been identified. Eleven healthy men, aged 32.3 +/- 4.1 years, and 9 healthy women, aged 29.1 +/- 3.5 years, performed countermovement jumps (CMJs) of maximal volition to assess peak power pre and post (immediately and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes) randomized WBV stimuli set at different frequency (30, 35, 40, and 50 Hz), displacement (2-4 vs. 4-6 mm), and duration (30, 45, and 60 seconds) combinations. Repeated-measures analysis of variance on peak power normalized to initial power (nPP) revealed no significant effects attributable to duration of stimulus. However, high frequencies were more effective when combined with high displacements, and low frequencies were more effective in conjunction with low displacements (p < 0.05). Additionally, the greatest improvements in nPP occurred at 1 minute posttreatment, with significant improvements lasting through 5 minutes posttreatment (p < 0.05). Optimal acute effects can be attained using as little as 30 seconds of WBV, and they are highest from 1 to 5 minutes posttreatment. Additionally, high frequencies were most effective when applied in conjunction with high displacements, whereas low frequencies were most effective when applied in conjunction with low displacements.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Jan 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057405

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement

    Author J Rittweger
    Author H Schiessl
    Author D Felsenberg
    Abstract In this study we investigated metabolic power during whole-body vibration exercise (VbX) compared to mild resistance exercise. Specific oxygen consumption (VO2) and subjectively perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion, RPE; Borg scale) were assessed in 12 young healthy subjects (8 female and 4 male). The outcome parameters were assessed during the last minute of a 3-min exercise bout, which consisted of either (1) simple standing, (2) squatting in cycles of 6 s to 90 degrees knee flexion, and (3) squatting as before with an additional load of 40% of the subject&apos;s body weight (35% in females). Exercise types 1-3 were performed with (VbX+) and without (VbX-) platform vibration at a frequency of 26 Hz and an amplitude of 6 mm. Compared to the VbX- condition, the specific VO2 was increased with vibration by 4.5 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). Likewise, squatting and the additional load were factors that further increased VO2. Corresponding changes were observed in RPE. There was a correlation between VbX- and VbX+ values for exercise types 1-3 (r = 0.90). The correlation coefficient between squat/no-squat values (r = 0.70 without and r = 0.71 with the additional load) was significantly lower than that for VbX-/VbX+. Variation in specific VO2 was significantly higher in the squatting paradigm than with vibration. It is concluded that the increased metabolic power observed in association with VbX is due to muscular activity. It is likely that this muscular activity is easier to control between individuals than is simple squatting.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Dec 2001
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11822476

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Oxygen Consumption
    • Physical Exertion
    • Posture
    • Self Concept
    • Vibration
    • Weight-Bearing

    Attachments

    • Oxygen uptake in wbv Rittweger ea 2001.pdf
  • Platform accelerations of three different whole-body vibration devices and the transmission of vertical vibrations to the lower limbs

    Author J.J.M. Pel
    Author J. Bagheri
    Author L.M. van Dam
    Author H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons
    Author H.L.D. Horemans
    Author H.J. Stam
    Author J. van der Steen
    Abstract Physical whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises become available at various levels of intensity. In a first series of measurements, we investigated 3-dimensional platform accelerations of three different WBV devices without and with three volunteers of different weight (62, 81 and 100 kg) in squat position (150° knee flexion). The devices tested were two professional devices, the PowerPlate and the Galileo-Fitness, and one home-use device, the PowerMaxx. In a second series of measurements, the transmission of vertical platform accelerations of each device to the lower limbs was tested in eight healthy volunteers in squat position (100° knee flexion). The first series showed that the platforms of two professional devices vibrated in an almost perfect vertical sine wave at frequencies between 25–50 and 5–40 Hz, respectively. The platform accelerations were slightly influenced by body weight. The PowerMaxx platform mainly vibrated in the horizontal plane at frequencies between 22 and 32 Hz, with minimal accelerations in the vertical direction. The weight of the volunteers reduced the platform accelerations in the horizontal plane but amplified those in the vertical direction about eight times. The vertical accelerations were highest in the Galileo (15 units of g) and the PowerPlate (8 units of g) and lowest in the PowerMaxx (2 units of g). The second series showed that the transmission of vertical accelerations at a common preset vibration frequency of 25 Hz were largest in the ankle and that transmission of acceleration reduced 10 times at the knee and hip. We conclude that large variation in 3-dimensional accelerations exist in commercially available devices. The results suggest that these differences in mechanical behaviour induce variations in transmissibility of vertical vibrations to the (lower) body. Keywords: Whole-body vibration; Acceleration; Vibration frequency; Squat position; Balance
    Publication Medical Engineering & Physics
    URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?
    _ob=ArticleURL&…

    Tags:

    • Acceleration
    • Balance
    • Squat position
    • Vibration frequency
    • Whole-body vibration

    Attachments

    • Platform accelerations of three different whole-body vibration devices and the transmission of vertical vibrations to the lower limbs.pdf
    • ScienceDirect Snapshot
  • Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force and rate of force rise

    Author C J de Ruiter
    Author R M van der Linden
    Author M J A van der Zijden
    Author A P Hollander
    Author A de Haan
    Abstract Whole-Body vibration (WBV) may lead to muscle contractions via reflex activation of the primary muscle spindle (Ia) fibres. WBV has been reported to increase muscle power in the short term by improved muscle activation. The present study set out to investigate the acute effects of a standard WBV training session on voluntary activation during maximal isometric force production (MVC) and maximal rate of force rise (MRFR) of the knee extensors. Twelve students underwent a single standard WBV training session: 5x1 min vibration (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude 8 mm) with 2 min rest in between. During vibration, subjects stood barefoot on the vibration platform with their knees at an angle of 110 degrees. At 90 s following vibration, maximal voluntary knee extensor force was reduced to 93 (5)% [mean (SD), P<0.05] of baseline value and recovered within the next 3 h. Voluntary activation remained significantly depressed (2-4%). Neither the electrically induced MRFR nor voluntary MRFR were significantly affected by WBV. In addition, six WBV training sessions in 2 weeks ( n=10) did not enhance either voluntary muscle activation during MVC [99 (2)% of the baseline value] or voluntary MRFR [98 (9)% of the baseline value]. It is concluded that in the short term, WBV training does not improve muscle activation during maximal isometric knee extensor force production and maximal rate of force rise in healthy untrained students.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Jan 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12527980

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electric Stimulation
    • Humans
    • Isometric Contraction
    • Knee
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • Short-term effects of WBV on maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force and rate of force rise.pdf
  • Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training

    Author Christophe Delecluse
    Author Machteld Roelants
    Author Sabine Verschueren
    Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a 12-wk period of whole-body vibration training and resistance training on human knee-extensor strength. METHODS: Sixty-seven untrained females (21.4 +/- 1.8 yr) participated in the study. The whole-body vibration group (WBV, N = 18) and the placebo group (PL, N = 19) performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform. The acceleration of the vibration platform was between 2.28 g and 5.09 g, whereas only 0.4 g for the PL condition. Vibration (35-40 Hz) resulted in increased EMG activity, but the EMG signal remained unchanged in the PL condition. The resistance-training group (RES, N = 18) trained knee extensors by dynamic leg-press and leg-extension exercises (10-20 RM). All training groups exercised 3x wk-1. The control group (CO, N = 12) did not participate in any training. Pre- and postisometric, dynamic, and ballistic knee-extensor strength were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Explosive strength was determined by means of a counter-movement jump. RESULTS: Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor strength increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both the WBV group (16.6 +/- 10.8%; 9.0 +/- 3.2%) and the RES group (14.4 +/- 5.3%; 7.0 +/- 6.2%), respectively, whereas the PL and CO group showed no significant (P > 0.05) increase. Counter-movement jump height enhanced significantly (P < 0.001) in the WBV group (7.6 +/- 4.3%) only. There was no effect of any of the interventions on maximal speed of movement, as measured by means of ballistic tests. CONCLUSIONS: WBV, and the reflexive muscle contraction it provokes, has the potential to induce strength gain in knee extensors of previously untrained females to the same extent as resistance training at moderate intensity. It was clearly shown that strength increases after WBV training are not attributable to a placebo effect.
    Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Date Jun 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12783053

    Tags:

    • Adolescent
    • Adult
    • Exercise Therapy
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Knee Joint
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Endurance
    • Vibration
    • Weight Lifting

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • The acute effects of two different whole body vibration frequencies on vertical jump performance.

    Author M. CARDINALE
    Author J. LIM
    Abstract Aim.Vibration exercise is a novel exercise intervention, which is applied in athletes and general populations with the aim of improving strength and power performance. The present study was aimed to analyse the adaptive responses to different whole body vibration frequencies. Methods.Fifteen untrained subjects were randomly assigned to a 5 min whole body vibration (WBV) training session on a vibrating plate producing sinusoidal oscillations at 20 Hz (low frequency) and 40 Hz (high frequency) with constant amplitude. Squat jump, countermovement jump and sit and reach test were administered before and after the WBV treatment. Results. Low frequency WBV stimulation was shown to significantly increase hamstrings’ flexibility by 10.1% (p<0.001) and squat jump by 4% (p<0.05). High frequency (40 Hz) of WBV stimulation determined a significant decrease in squat jump (-3.8%; p<0.05) and in counter movement jump (-3.6; p<0.001). Conclusion. The results showed the influence of WBV frequency on acute adaptive responses. In particular, the untrained subjects in the presented study, showed acute enhancement in neuromuscular performance with low-frequency WBV stimulation.
    Publication Medicina dello Sport
    Date 2003

    Tags:

    • Spindle

    Attachments

    • The acute effects of two different whole body vibration frequencies on vertical jump performance.pdf
  • The effects of 11 weeks whole body vibration training on jump height, contractile properties and activation of human knee extensors

    Author C J de Ruiter
    Author S M Van Raak
    Author J V Schilperoort
    Author A P Hollander
    Author A de Haan
    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether 11 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training applied in a way that is commonly seen in practice, i.e. without additional loads, would improve muscle activation and/or contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles and counter movement jump height in healthy subjects. Ten subjects belonging to the experimental group trained three times a week and stood bare-foot with a 110 degrees knee angle on a vibration platform (30 Hz, 8 mm amplitude). They underwent five to eight sets of 1-min vibration with 1 min rest in between. Ten control subjects followed the same training programme but stood (110 degrees knee angle) beside the platform. Before, during and following the training period the subjects were tested. Values [mean (SEM)] obtained in the last test were expressed as percentages of the baseline value and presented for control and experimental groups. Quadriceps femoris isometric muscle force [105.4 (6.2)%, 99.9 (2.0)%; P=0.69], voluntary activation [107.1 (6.0)%, 101.1 (2.3)%; P=0.55] and maximal rate of voluntary force rise [95.4 (6.0)%, 103.3 (7.7)%; P=0.57] did not improve. The maximal rate of force rise during electrical stimulation was increased [102.3 (4.5)%, 123.6 (7.5)%; P=0.02]. Counter movement jump height was not affected by WBV [103.7 (1.8)%, 103.0 (2.8)%; P=0.71]. In conclusion, 11 weeks of standard two-legged WBV training without additional training loads did not improve functional knee extensor muscle strength in healthy young subjects.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Nov 2003
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12923646

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electric Stimulation Therapy
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Knee
    • Locomotion
    • Male
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Task Performance and Analysis
    • Time Factors
    • Vibration
  • The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners

    Author J Edge
    Author T Mündel
    Author K Weir
    Author D J Cochrane
    Abstract The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 x 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein, CRP). A second purpose was to determine the effects of a 3 km TT and HIIT on performance and metabolism the following day. Nine well-trained, middle-aged, male runners [(mean +/- SD) age 45 +/- 6 years, body mass 75 +/- 7 kg, VO2peak 58 +/- 5 ml kg(-1 )min(-1)] performed a constant pace run at 60 and 80% velocity at VO2peak (v VO2peak) followed by a 3-km TT and a 8 x 400-m HIIT session on two occasions. Following one occasion, the athletes performed 2 x 15 min of low frequency (12 Hz) WBV, whilst the other occasion was a non-WBV control. Twenty-four hours after each HIIT session (day 2) participants performed the constant pace run (60 and 80% v VO2peak) and 3 km TT again. There was a significant decrease in 3 km TT performance (~10 s) 24 h after the HIIT session (P < 0.05); however, there were no differences between conditions (control vs. vibration, P > 0.05). Creatine kinase was significantly elevated on day 2, though there were no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). VO2peak and blood lactate were lower on day 2 (P < 0.05), again with no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). These results show no benefit of WBV on running performance recovery following a HIIT session. However, we have shown that there may be acute alterations in metabolism 24 h following such a running session in well-trained, middle-aged runners.
    Publication European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Date Feb 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19011891

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Athletic Performance
    • C-Reactive Protein
    • Creatine Kinase
    • Exercise Movement Techniques
    • Exercise Test
    • Exercise Tolerance
    • Humans
    • Lactic Acid
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Muscle Fatigue
    • Oxygen Consumption
    • Physical Exertion
    • Physical Fitness
    • Physical Stimulation
    • Running
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration

    Author Nuria Garatachea
    Author Alfonso Jiménez
    Author Guilherme Bresciani
    Author Nelson A Mariño
    Author Javier González-Gallego
    Author José A de Paz
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how cycle time duration affects energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole-body vibration (WBV). Nine men performed 3 squatting exercises in execution frequency cycles of 6, 4, and 2 seconds to 90 degrees knee flexion with vibration (Vb+) (frequency was set at 30 Hz and the amplitude of vibration was 4 mm) and without vibration (Vb-) during 3 minutes, each with an additional load of 30% of the subject&apos;s body weight. A 2-way analysis of variance for VO2 revealed a significant vibration condition main effect (p < 0.001) and a cycle time duration effect (p < 0.001). When differences were analyzed by Fisher&apos;s LSD test, cycle time duration of 2 seconds was significantly different from 4 and 6 seconds, both in Vb+ and Vb-. Total energy expenditure (EE(tot)), carbohydrate oxidation rate (EE(cho)), and fat oxidation rate (EE(fat)) demonstrated a significant vibration condition main effect (EE(tot): p < 0.01; EE(cho): p < 0.001; EE(fat): p < 0.001) and cycle time duration main effect (EE(tot) and EE(cho): p < 0.001; EE(fat): p < 0.01). EE(tot), EE(cho), and EE(fat) post hoc comparisons indicated that values for the 2-second test significantly differed from 4 and 6 seconds when compared in the same vibration condition. VO2 and EE values were greater in Vb+ than in Vb- conditions with the same cycle time duration. Our study confirms that squatting at a greater frequency helps to maximize energy expenditure during exercise with or without vibration. Therefore, cycle time duration must be controlled when vibration exercise is prescribed.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date May 2007
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17530981

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Energy Metabolism
    • Exercise
    • Exercise Test
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Exertion
    • Posture
    • Spindle
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • WBV Energy Expenditure in Squatting - JSCR 2007 - Garatachea - Uni.Leon.pdf
  • The influence of whole body vibration on jumping performance

    Author Marco Cardinale
    Author C. Bosco
    Author O. Tsarpela
    Author R. Colli
    Abstract The effects of whole-body vibrations on the mechanical behaviour of human skeletal muscles were studied in 14 physicaly active subjects randomly assigned to the experimental (E) or control (C) group. It was suggested that the effect of whole body vibration elicited a fast biological adaptation associated with neural potentiation.
    Publication Biology of Sport
    Date 1998

    Tags:

    • Muscle mechanics
    • muscle power
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • The influence of wbv on jumpimg - Bosco.pdf
  • The short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance

    Author Darryl J Cochrane
    Author Stephen J Legg
    Author Michael J Hooker
    Abstract Previous studies have suggested that short-term whole-body vibration (WBV) training produces neuromuscular improvement similar to that of power and strength training. However, it is yet to be determined whether short-term WBV exposure produces neurogenic enhancement for power, speed, and agility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect short-term WBV training had on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance in nonelite athletes. Twenty-four sport science students (16 men and 8 women) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: WBV training or control. Each group included 8 men and 4 women. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, squat jump (SJ) height, sprint speed over 5, 10, and 20 m, and agility (505, up and back) were performed by each participant before and after 9 days of either no training (control) or WBV training. Perceived discomfort of every participant was recorded after daily WBV exposure and nonexposure. There were no significant differences between WBV and control groups for CMJ, SJ, sprints, and agility. Perceived discomfort differed between the first and subsequent days of WBV training (p < 0.05); however, there was no difference between the WBV and control groups. It is concluded that short-term WBV training did not enhance performance in nonelite athletes.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Nov 2004
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574090

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Analysis of Variance
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Physical Endurance
    • Running
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Vibration Training and Athletic Performance

    Author McBride

    Attachments

    • Vibration Training.pdf
  • Vibration training: an overview of the area, training consequences, and future considerations

    Author Matthew J Jordan
    Author Stephen R Norris
    Author David J Smith
    Author Walter Herzog
    Abstract The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been used during strength-training movements such as elbow flexion, and vibration has also been applied to the entire body by having subjects stand on vibration platforms. Exposure to whole-body vibration has also resulted in a significant improvement in power output in the postvibratory period and has been demonstrated to induce significant changes in the resting hormonal profiles of men. In addition to the potential training effects of vibration, the improvement in power output that is observed in the postvibratory period may also lead to better warm-up protocols for athletes competing in sporting events that require high amounts of power output. These observations provide the possibility of new and improved methods of augmenting the training and performance of athletes through the use vibration training. Despite the potential benefits of vibration training, there is substantial evidence regarding the negative effects of vibration on the human body. In conclusion, the potential of vibration treatment to enhance the training regimes of athletes appears quite promising. It is essential though that a thorough understanding of the implications of this type of treatment be acquired prior to its use in athletic situations. Future research should be done with the aim of understanding the biological effects of vibration on muscle performance and also the effects of different vibration protocols on muscle performance.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date May 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15903391

    Tags:

    • Clinical Protocols
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Movement
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Spindle
    • Sports
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
    • Vibration Training Overview-Jordan, Norris, Smith, Herzog-Uni.Calgary-JSCR May05.pdf
  • Vibration training: benefits and risks

    Author J Mester
    Author H Kleinoder
    Author Z Yue
    Abstract The main results of our recent several studies, i.e. the measurements of vibration training results for single case and group studies as well as the cardiovascular parameter measurements during vibrations and the corresponding hydrodynamic analysis, are summarized. Our studies and previous work all confirm that vibration training is an effective training method in order to improve maximal strength and flexibility as well as various other factors if the training is properly designed. Some recommendations regarding the proper ranges of frequencies, amplitudes and exposure duration of vibration training are made based on the existing vibration training practice and mechanism analysis, although much work remains to be carried out in order to set up clear rules for various groups of people so that maximal training results could be expected and in the meantime potential dangerous effects could be avoided. Cardiovascular parameter measurements confirm that total peripheral resistance (TPR) to the blood flow is increased during body vibration. Hydrodynamic analysis offers the mechanism for the increase of TPR through the deformation of vessels. As a reaction of compensation, more capillaries are probably opened in order to keep a necessary level of cardiac output needed for the body, resulting in more efficient gas and material metabolism between the blood and muscle fibres. This might be one of the reasons for the various potential beneficial effects of vibration training.
    Publication Journal of Biomechanics
    Date 2006
    URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.02.015

    Tags:

    • liikunta

    Attachments

    • Elsevier: Article Locator
    • Mester Kleinoder 2006 - Vibration training benefits and risks - JBiomech.pdf
  • Vibration training: could it enhance the strength, power, or speed of athletes?

    Author Ian M Wilcock
    Author Chris Whatman
    Author Nigel Harris
    Author Justin W L Keogh
    Abstract The aim of this literature review was to determine whether vibration training could produce chronic improvements in the physical performance of trained athletes. Although the main objective was to analyze any performance benefits, a brief review of possible mechanisms linked to performance enhancement is also included. Vibration causes an increase in the g-forces acting on the muscles, increasing the loading parameters of any exercise. Increased loading should aid muscle hypertrophy, and some authors have suggested that vibration may enhance neuromuscular potentiation. Considering the 6 studies on trained athletes, there does seem to be some evidence to suggest that vibration may provide a small benefit to maximal strength (1-repetition maximum) and power (countermovement jumps) of trained athletes. Speed does not seem to be enhanced by vibration training. There is a lack of evidence to support the theory that long-term vibration training increases neuromuscular potentiation in trained athletes. What mechanism(s) could be responsible for possible strength and power enhancement is unclear. Because whole-body vibration does not seem to be detrimental to performance when used in a controlled manner, it could provide an additional training stimulus for athletes. However, further research is required to determine optimum vibration training protocols and to clarify whether vibration training produces performance benefits greater than those of traditional training methods.
    Publication Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
    Date Mar 2009
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19258884

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
    • Wilcock 2009 JSCR Vibration Training Could It Enhance the Strength, Power, or Speed of Athletes.pdf
  • Vibrations and their applications in sport. A review

    Author V B Issurin
    Abstract In sport, mechanical vibration is used as a massage tool and/or for training purposes. Two varieties of vibration training (VT) can be distinguished: strength exercises with superimposed vibratory stimulation (VS exercises) and motor tasks performed under whole body vibration (the WBV training). Vibratory massage has been used extensively since the beginning of the 20th century while VT is a relatively new technique. In the research literature, the main subjects addressed have been acute and cumulative effects of VS on flexibility and strength. Marked enhancement effects were obtained in medium-duration stretching and short-duration dynamic strength exercises while prolonged efforts did not show positive impact. The observed effects of vibration depend on various neural facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. In comparison to VS exercises, WBV tasks generate more global neuromuscular, metabolic and hormonal responses. WBV training resulted in significant changes in several motor variables, with stretch-shortening cycle tests (such as countermovement jumps, serial high jumps, etc.) being the most sensitive to WBV treatment. Based on available knowledge about proprioceptive spinal reflexes-that feedback from the primary endings of motor spindles produces a stimulatory effect via increased discharge of a-motoneurons, and activation of Golgi tendon organs (GTO) evokes inhibition of muscle action-a hypothesis has been proposed that VT enhances excitatory inflow from muscle spindles to the motorneuron pools and depresses inhibitory impact of GTO due to the accommodation to vibration stimuli. The intensity and duration of vibration used in VT dramatically exceed the standards for occupational vibration established by the International Organization for Standardization.
    Publication The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
    Date Sep 2005
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16230984

    Tags:

    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Motor Activity
    • Muscle Contraction
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Physical Education and Training
    • Physical Endurance
    • Spindle
    • Sports Medicine
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
    • vibrationsandtheirapplicationsinsport.pdf
  • WBV Therapy for Parkinson

    Attachments

    • WBV and Parkinson.pdf
  • Whole body vibration exercise: training and benefits

    Author Dennis G Dolny
    Author G Francis Cisco Reyes
    Abstract In recent years, it has been suggested that exercise using whole body vibration (WBV) platforms may increase muscle activity and subsequently enhance muscle performance in both acute and chronic conditions. WBV platforms produce frequencies ranging from 15-60 Hz and vertical displacements from ~1-11 mm, resulting in accelerations of ~2.2-5.1 g. Acute exposure to WBV has produced mixed results in terms of improving jump, sprint, and measures of muscle performance. With WBV training, younger fit subjects may not experience gains unless some type of external load is added to WBV exercise. However, sedentary and elderly individuals have demonstrated significant gains in most measures of muscle performance, similar with comparable traditional resistance exercise training programs. WBV training also has demonstrated gains in flexibility in younger athletic populations and gains or maintenance in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. These promising results await further research to establish preferred WBV training parameters.
    Publication Current Sports Medicine Reports
    Date 2008 May-Jun
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18477873

    Tags:

    • Exercise
    • Humans
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Safety
    • Vibration

    Attachments

    • PubMed Snapshot
  • Whole-Body Vibration Induced Adaptation in Knee Extensors; Consequences of Initial Strength, Vibration Frequency, and Joint Angle

    Author Hans H. C.M Savelberg
    Author Hnas A Meier
    Abstract Savelberg, H.H.C.M., H.A. Keizer, and K. Meijer. Whole-body vibration induced adaptation in knee extensors; consequences of initial strength, vibration frequency, and joint angle. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(2):589-593. 2007.-It was hypothesized that both vibration frequency and muscle length modulate the strengthening of muscles that is assumed to result from whole-body vibration (WBV). Length of knee extensor muscles during vibration is affected by the knee joint angle; the lengths of the knee extensors increase with more flexed knee joint angles. In an intervention study 28 volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Each group received 4 weeks of WBV at 1 of 3 different frequencies (20, 27, or 34 Hz) or 1 of 2 different lengths of knee extensors. Voluntary, isometric knee extension moment-angle relationship was determined. Initially, stronger subjects reacted differently to WBV than weaker participants. In stronger subjects knee extension moment did not improve; in the weaker subjects considerable improvements were observed ranging from 10 to 50%. Neither vibration frequency nor muscle length during the intervention affected the improvements. In addition to strength, the knee joint angle at which the maximal joint moment was generated (optimal joint angle) was affected. When trained at short muscle lengths, optimal angle shifted to more extend joint position. WBV training at long muscle lengths tended to induce an opposite shift. The amount of this shift tended to be influenced by vibration frequency; the lower the vibration frequency the larger the shift. Shifts of optimal lengths occurred in both weaker and stronger subjects. This study shows that muscle length during training affects the angle of knee joint at which the maximal extension moment was generated. Moreover, in weaker subjects WBV resulted in higher maximal knee joint extension moments. Vibration frequency and muscle length during vibration did not affect this joint moment gain.
    Website Type http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text
    URL http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?
    codigo=2499704

    Attachments

    • Savelberg and Meier - Whole-Body Vibration Induced Adaptation in Knee Ex.pdf
    • Whole-Body Vibration Induced Adaptation in Knee Extensors; Consequences of Initial Strength, Vibration Frequency, and Joint Angle - Dialnet

Urinary Incontinence

  • Effect of paraspinal muscle vibration on position sense of the lumbosacral spine

    Author S Brumagne
    Author R Lysens
    Author S Swinnen
    Author S Verschueren
    Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A two-group experimental design with repeated measures on one factor was used. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of the muscle spindles of the paraspinal muscles in lumbosacral position sense of healthy individuals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle spindles are recognized to be important mediators for position and movement sense in peripheral joints, and they are very sensitive to mechanical vibration. However, little is known about their role in the control of lumbosacral spine positioning. METHODS: Twenty-five young individuals with no low back pain were assigned at random to an experimental or control group. Proprioceptive information of the multifidus muscle spindles was distorted in half of the trials in 16 individuals by manually applying vibration (70 Hz, 0.5 mm amplitude) for approximately 5 seconds. The control group (n = 9) only heard the vibrator noise during repositioning of the lumbosacral spine. Repositioning accuracy in the sitting position was estimated by calculating the mean absolute error, constant error, and variable error among six criteria and reproduction sacral tilt angles. RESULTS: Multifidus muscle vibration induced a significant muscle lengthening illusion through which the members of the experimental group undershot the target position (F(1,15) = 30.77, P < 0.0001). The position sense scores of the control group displayed no significant differences across trials (F(1,8) = 0.56, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that precise muscle spindle input of the paraspinal muscles is essential for accurate positioning of the pelvis and lumbosacral spine in a sitting posture.
    Publication Spine
    Date Jul 1, 1999
    URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404575

    Tags:

    • Adult
    • Electrophysiology
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Lumbosacral Region
    • Male
    • Muscle, Skeletal
    • Posture
    • Proprioception
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Vibration
  • Effect On Muscles Of Mechanical Vibrations Produced By The Galileo 2000 In Combination With Physical Therapy In Treating Female Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Presenter S von der Heide
    Presenter V. Viereck
    Presenter R. Hilgers
    Presenter G. Emons
    Abstract Aims of Study A prospective randomized study was performed to determine whether intensive vibration training (1-4) using the Galileo 2000 in combination with physical therapy improves the continence rate in women with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence. The influence on the pelvic floor muscles and the therapeutic effect on stress incontinence were investigated. Methods The Galileo 2000 is a platform with a sagittal axle on which a teeterboard is tilted up and down (5 mm) at a variable frequency of 5 – 30 Hz. This movement produces mechanical oscillations with an average cycle length of about 40 msec, which is the time required to induce a natural monosynaptic stretching reflex in the respective muscle via the muscle spindle during one up and down movement. The neuromuscular system reacts to this stimulation by a chain of rapid muscle contractions which may result in entire-body vibration. Both forms of treatment aim at strengthening the muscles involved in closing the urethra, vibration therapy in a reactive way and physical therapy in an active way. Twenty-nine patients were examined clinically and urodynamically (including perineal ultrasound and pelvimeter) and assigned to 3 treatment groups. Group A underwent combined physical therapy (PT) and vibration training with the Galileo (Gal) throughout the treatment period. Group B started with physical therapy and switched to vibration training after 12 weeks (PT > Gal), and Group C first had vibration training and then changed to physical therapy (Gal > PT). Weekly training comprised 2 training units with physical therapy of 30 min duration and vibration training of 2 x 4 min. The total length of training was 24 weeks and was followed by a 12-week follow-up period. Results The patients’ median age at the time of treatment was 50 years (range 34 – 69 years). The objectively determined continence rate was 80% in Group A (combined treatment), 56% in Group B (PT > Gal), and 60% in Group C (Gal > PT). These results were in agreement with the subjective frequency of weekly urine loss. All three groups showed a considerable improvement of mean pelvic floor strength determined pelvimetrically (by 8 μV in Group A, 7 μV in Group B, and 6 μV in Group C). These findings were confirmed by palpation and ultrasound. At the end of the study the average grade of stress urinary incontinence decreased from 1.8 to 0.2 in Group A, from 1.7 to 0.2 in Group B, and from 1.8 to 0.3 in Group C. These results were also reflected by a subjective improvement of complaints in all patients (p < 0,001). Conclusions Muscle stimulation by vibration training improves the subjective and objective parameters of stress urinary incontinence. The combination of vibration training and physical therapy turned out to be highly effective and thus represents a genuine therapeutic option for patients with stress urinary incontinence.
    Date 2003
    Meeting Name Galileo event
    Rights Galileo

    Tags:

    • Spindle

    Attachments

    • wbv and incontinence.pdf